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From drawing by Mr. Howard Carter : the original is the property 
of Mr. J. IV. Kingsmill Marrs 

Two Theban Queens 

And their Tombs 












* I 

# t 




P. A. C. 



The Tombs of Queens Nefert-ari and Ty-ti 
were amongst those which I carefully copied 
in the winter seasons of 1905-6 and 1906-7, 
when engaged on The Gardeners Tomb 
(Sen-nofer’s) at Thebes, which was pub- 
lished in the spring of 1908. They were 
again carefully examined last winter and 
compared with my notes, and the result 
is embodied in the following pages. For 
some points in the description of Queen 
Ty-ti’s Tomb l acknowledge my indebted- 
ness to an official Cairo publication ; but 
I could not follow its author in his fanciful 
interpretations of some of the scenes. Of 
Queen Nefert-ari’s Tomb no account, so 
far as known to me, has yet been given. 
I can hardly hope that 1 have avoided all 


viii NOTE 

errors, either in the translation of the in- 
scriptions or in the interpretation of the 
pictures on the walls. 

I have been greatly indebted to various 
editions of the Book of the Dead , but above 
all to Professor Naville’s. 

The frontispiece I owe to the kindness 
of Mr. Howard Carter, whose original 
drawing of Queen Nefert-ari is now the 
property of Mr. J. W. Kingsmill Marrs. 
The other illustrations are from photo- 
graphs and sketches of my own. 

C. C. 


September 1909. 





QUEEN NEFERT-ARI . . . Frontispiece 










CHAMBER ....... 99 






The tomb known to Baedeker ( Egypt , 1908, 
p. 316) as that of ‘ Nefret-ere-Mi-en-Mut, 
wife of Rameses n.,’ in the Valley of the 
Tombs of the Queens, reached either from 
the Temple of Medinet Habu, westwards, 
in less than half an hour, or from Deir el 
Medineh, southwards over the shoulder of 
the hill, in fifteen or twenty minutes, was 
opened up in 1904 by the Italian Archaeo- 
logical Mission. It is much the finest and 
most interesting of the rock-hewn tombs in 
this valley, and consists of a chamber (No. 1 
in Baedekers plan), with a smaller room 
opening off it to the right, No. 2, then a flight 
of wooden steps (No. 3) descends to a much 
larger chamber (No. 4), whose roof is sup- 
ported by four square pillars. To right 
and left of No. 4 are two tiny rooms, Nos. 6 
and 7, while at the extreme end is the inner- 


most sanctuary, No. 5, where the supreme 
act or culmination of the process of com- 
plete identification of the deceased with 
Osiris was accomplished. For the ex- 
ploration of the tomb no lights are required 
as far as the bottom of the wooden stair- 
case ; but for the remainder a good light 
is necessary, and care must be shown in 
moving about, as there are a few steps in 
the rock leading down to the floor of 
Chamber 4, as well as into the small side- 
rooms. Round two sides of Chamber 1 
there is a raised bench, on which were pro- 
bably laid the gifts for the sustenance of the 
Ka of the deceased. A similar bench occurs 
in Chamber 4. If the lady was buried 
in the tomb, the mummy shaft probably 
led downwards from the small room, No. 7, 
on the left side of the large nether chamber. 
Such is the arrangement of the tomb. 

As to the work. It has been described 
as ‘poor and coarse,' but an examination 
will probably recommend it as singularly 
effective, the portraits of the queen, both 
on the walls and the pillars, being very 



striking. The painting is executed in low 
relief on a couple of inches of plaster, and, 
for the most part, is as fresh and perfect as 
when it left the artist’s hands some thirty- 
two centuries ago. In some places, un- 
fortunately — notably in Chamber i and 
towards the rear of Chamber 4 — much 
damage has been caused, it is alleged, by 
infiltration of water, but also, it is to be 
feared, by the carelessness or worse of 
ancient visitors, by some of whom the tomb 
had evidently been plundered, as nothing 
was found in it by the excavators. 

The scenes depicted in this tomb, as well 
as in Queen Ty-ti’s, strikingly illustrate a 
characteristic of royal tombs, as distin- 
guished from those of humbler persons, 
which Professor Edouard Naville points out 
in his illuminative Lectures on the Religion 
of the Ancient Egyptians. The difference 
is that the royal tombs deal entirely with 
the next world, as the priests imagined it, 
and never with terrestrial life, either actual 
or ideal. ‘Nothing,’ he says, ‘recalls the 
present life, or even the past, of the 


sovereign : there is no allusion to a manner 
of life similar to what he led on earth ; only 
religious texts, extraordinary in their mysti- 
cism, and often impossible to understand, 
introducing us into the midst of a crowd 
of gods, goddesses, beneficent spirits and 
hostile demons, of serpents and monsters, 
with which the Egyptian imagination 
peopled the region beyond the tomb.’ 
This description applies perfectly to the 
tombs in question. Here we have no 
hint of the queens daily life on earth, 
either as it had been, or as her friends 
might have wished to represent it, idealised 
and beautified, but still terrestrial and 
human in its nature. There is no glimpse 
here of how the queen spent her days, with 
her husband, her children, or her ladies ; 
nothing of her joys or sorrows ; nothing of 
her amusements, in palace or garden or 
on the river — unless it be the draught- 
playing scene just inside the first door on 
the left on entering — nothing of her duties 
as a princess in her own right, or as wedded 
queen, ‘great royal wife.’ She is here 



transported to a world beyond human ken, 
with no human being near, except the 
image of a perfunctory priest, no husband 
beside her, or even his name — the wonder- 
ful symbol and guarantee of life — to keep 
her company, with the august deities and 
dread monsters of the life to come, as she 
rises into a divinity at least equal to that 
of the best of them. All that she has to 
remind her of the world she has left — ‘ the 
day from which she has come forth ’ — is the 
human speech depicted on the walls around 
her; but these words are more than the 
bodily presence of men, for by their magic 
she can gain the mastery over the powers of 
the world to come ; by pronouncing them 
she can open every mysterious door or 
‘ mansion ’ of the house of Osiris ; and they 
will enable her to brave every terror, until 
she achieves unity with Osiris, the Lord of 
the Unseen World. As an old papyrus 
has it : ‘ Even as Osiris lives, he (the 
dead) will live also ; even as Osiris is not 
dead, he also will not die ; even as Osiris is 
not destroyed, he also will not be destroyed.’ 


Before entering on the description of the 
scenes in the tomb, let us note its other 
omissions. First, the god Amen is not, 
with one possible exception, mentioned in 
all the inscriptions. In one way this is 
remarkable, as in the xixth Dynasty, to 
which period the tomb undoubtedly belongs, 
the worship and the influence of Amen had 
almost reached their zenith. But it must be 
remembered that in the passages from the 
Book of the Dead , or as Professor Naville 
prefers to call it, ‘ the book of coming out of 
the day,’ which are cited in the tomb, the 
name of the god Amen, though predominant 
in Thebes, had not yet been inserted, as it was 
later, in some chapters. With possibly one 
exception, which will be noticed later, the 
doctrine of Amen might as well have been 
non-existent, so far at least as the next world 
is concerned. Next, there is no sacred 
formula or petition, no suten-da-hotep, to any 
god to provide funeral meals or offerings for 
the Ka of the deceased, as is customary in 
tombs, nor indeed is the queen’s Ka ever 
mentioned. Lastly, though undoubtedly 



Osiris, as the sovereign of Amentet, or 
the Hidden World, to which the dead go, 
plays a large part in the scenes represented, 
the significant scene of the Judgment, or the 
weighing of the Heart, found in so many 
tombs, both royal and private, is absent, as, 
indeed, is every moral element which might 
be considered in determining the destiny of 
the deceased. It can hardly have been 
present in the destroyed portions of the 
tomb, for these can be otherwise accounted 
for. In the outer rooms of the tomb, which 
perhaps represent the vestibule, so to speak, 
of the next life, consisting of introductions 
and offerings to various deities, we should 
not properly expect to find moral considera- 
tions given effect to ; but in the inner and 
larger hall, where final union with Osiris is 
the goal, we might fairly look for a judgment 
scene to occur. But the designer of the 
tomb did not select that scene for represen- 
tation. What we find are pictures of the 
Arits (doors or gates) which lead to the 
various Sebkhets (cells or mansions) of the 
House of Osiris, guarded by monsters with 


knives ; and through these doors and 
mansions the queen can pass into bliss 
and union with Osiris simply by reciting the 
‘ words of power ’ inscribed beside her. The 
mere recital of the words, or even their exist- 
ence on the walls , is sufficient in itself to 
accomplish the grand purpose in view. No 
kind of moral test or requirement is here 
needed ; it is an absolute system of magic 
— of belief reduced to absurdity — a know- 
ledge of names of monsters and all sorts of 
objects, even to the bolts of a door, and how 
to pronounce them with authority, and have 
power over the beings they represent. It is 
this same power which is implied in exorcism 
of all kinds, ancient and modern, sacred and 

Nor do we find here any confession, nega- 
tive or otherwise, of evils or wrongs done by 
the deceased such as we have in well-known 
chapters of the Book of the Dead \ which 
exhibit a moral code of a very high order. 
Still less do we find such noble assertions 
of virtue as these : ‘ Behold, I come to you, 
without sin, without evil. ... I live by truth 


and feed myself with the truth of my heart. 

. . . I have given bread to the hungry, water 
to the thirsty, clothing to the naked 
(compare St. Matthew xxv. 35, 45), a 
passage in my boat to those who could not 
cross. I was a father to the orphan, a 
husband to the widow, a protection (shelter) 
from the storm to the shivering,’ etc. 
(compare Job xxix. 12-16). To be sure, 
there is in the first recitation put in the 
mouth of the queen the following : ‘ Done 
away are my defects, abolished are my 
deficiencies,’ yet the explanation that follows, 
given in these words, ‘ It is the cutting off 
of part of the body of the deceased (Osiris) 
Nefert-ari,’ seems rather to point to some 
burial or mummifying ceremonial, like the 
allusion to dipping in the lakes of natron 
and salt which we find immediately after, 
rather than to any moral purification. 

Who was the queen for whom this 
splendid tomb was excavated and decor- 
ated? There is little or no doubt that it 
was for Nefert-ari, the first and favourite 
wife of Rameses 11., the long-lived vain- 


glorious monarch of the xixth Dynasty, 
during whose protracted reign Egyptian 
decadence most probably began (1300- 
1234 b.c.). Her husband’s name, as 
already stated, does not appear in the 
tomb ; while her own is everywhere given 
as Nefert-ari Mer-en-Mut. The meaning 
of the first part of the name is doubtful, 
but it contains the sign for ‘beauty’ or 
‘ beautiful ’ ; the last part signifies ‘ beloved 
of Mut ’ (the goddess). The form of the 
name is substantially the same that appears 
on her husband’s statues, where she is also 
sculptured, at the temples of Abu-Simbel, 
Luqsor, and elsewhere, as well as on the 
superb black granite statue in the Turin 
Museum. She must, however, be carefully 
distinguished from Aahmes Nefert-ari, the 
first queen of the xvmth Dynasty, who 
flourished nearly three hundred years before 
our queen. It is not known for certain 
who she was ; probably she was a daughter 
of Sety 1., father of Rameses 11., and there- 
fore the latter’s sister or half-sister, as an 
inscription at Abu-Simbel seems to show, 


where she is described (Maspero, Histoire 
Ancienne , 11.) along with Ast-nefert as a 
hereditary ‘ Princess of South and North.’ 
In this tomb she is styled ‘ Great Royal 
Wife, Lady of the Two Lands, Mistress of 
South and North, Royal Palm Branch’ (a 
term of endearment). Whether sister or 
not, she was already married to Rameses 
in the first year of his reign, as we learn 
from the tomb of the High Priest of Amen, 
Nebunnef, at Thebes (Lepsius, Denkmaler 
Texts, 11. 239), who celebrated the great 
festival of the god in that year. About the 
same time Rameses married another queen, 
Ast-nefert, one of whose sons, Mer-en-ptah, 
eventually succeeded his father after a too 
long reign of sixty-five years. Ast-nefert 
was also the mother of his favourite daughter 
Banutantha, who, along with his mother 
Tuaa and Nefert-ari, share places of honour 
beside him on his colossal and other statues. 
His favourite son Kha-em-uas, intended to 
be his heir, was also born of Ast-nefert, but 
died before his father. It is known that 
Nefert-ari also had two sons, but they dis- 


appear from history before their fathers 
death, who indeed survived long enough to 
outlive most of his children. Whether 
Nefert-ari survived her sons or died early 
in life we have no certain knowledge ; we 
know, however, that her name or effigy 
does not occur on any of her husbands 
constructions in later years, and we can 
only infer her death from this silence, as 
this tomb testifies to his continued affection 
for her. For during her life her influence 
must have been great. None of the 
Egyptian queens, so far as we know, had 
been held in such honour, for none had a 
temple dedicated to her jointly with a 
goddess, as was the case with Nefert-ari 
at Abu-Simbel, where she shares the 
honours with Hathor in the smaller temple. 
Within, too, the king is seen offering in- 
cense and pouring a libation to her and 
himself ; and after death she was worshipped 
as a divine Osiris. And in the great Abu- 
Simbel Temple her statues figure promi- 
nently beside the four seated colossi of her 
husband, which front the dawn. Thus, the 


outstanding fact remains that, although Ast- 
nefert was the mother of his destined heir 
and of his favourite daughter, and although 
the Princess of Kheta and numerous other 
wives were the mothers of at least one 
hundred and forty other children, Nefert-ari 
reigned supreme in his affections, ‘ the great 
princess of every grace in his heart, the 
palm-branch of love, the beloved of the 
king, and united with the ruler ’ ; and at 
last, in this awe-inspiring valley, beneath 
its majestic cliffs, he had this sumptuous 
‘House of Eternity’ prepared for her, 
wherein to abide for ever. 

The Tomb 

We shall adopt the numbers of the 
Chambers as given in Baedeker’s plan 
(p. 316: 6th Ed.), and begin with No. 1. 
We take the left-hand side of the entrance 
and go on till we come to the door at the 
wooden staircase ; then returning to the 
main entrance we shall examine the right 
side of the room up to the same point. 
Next we shall take the small side-chamber, 


in the same order, left side first, right side 
last, which we believe to be the proper 
order in examining tombs. 

Room No. i 

The long inscription above the bench, 
much destroyed in places, is a rather garbled 
version of chapter xvn. of the Book of the 
Dead , which Professor Naville gives sub- 
stantial reasons for calling ‘ the coming out 
of the Day,’ the day here named being, in 
his opinion, a man’s life which is limited by 
time, also by the fact of man not being able 
to change his appearance; his day has a 
morning and an evening ; and ‘ coming out 
of the day ’ is to be delivered from all those 
limits, and to be able to assume all forms 
one likes (Naville’s Funeral Papyrus of 
louiya). The pictures along the frieze are 
partly explained by the inscription which 
begins at the left jamb of the entrance, and 
ends at the door of the wooden stair. Un- 
fortunately it is badly destroyed, but judging 
from what is intact, the original could not 
have been a valuable copy of the part of 



chapter xvn, chosen for inscription. It 
is one of the oldest and most important 
chapters in the whole collection, and repre- 
sents, in its kernel, the old Heliopolitan 
theology. Consequently it was the first 
chapter, if not the only one, according to 
Egyptologists, to receive glosses and com- 
mentaries, as the original meaning became 
lost, or was wilfully perverted. These 
glosses and commentaries are introduced 
by the words, ‘ Explain that,’ or ‘ What is 
that ? ’ or simply ‘ Otherwise .' 1 In some of 
the texts these additions appear in red ink. 
The text given in the tomb, so far as it is 
complete, is nearest to that of the Papyrus 
of Ani ; it has also affinities with that of 
Iouiya. The beginning of the chapter is 
broken away at the door-jamb. In the 
following version the parts unrepresented 
on the wall are enclosed in square brackets ; 
the commentaries are in italics : and N. is 
the queens name. 

1 The Egyptian commentators anticipated by several 
thousands of years the philological mythology of the late 
Prof. Max Muller and others. 



‘ [Beginning of the praisings and 
glorifyings] of going out from, and 
going into, the radiant Amentet (under- 
world) the beautiful, of coming forth from 
the day to perform the changes in all the 
forms which he (the deceased) pleases 
to take, of draught-playing, sitting in 
the pavilion, and of going forth as a 
living soul. Saith the Osiris the great 
royal wife, Lady of the Two Lands, 
Nefert-ari, triumphant after he (she) 
hath reached his (her) haven : glorified 
is that which is done upon the earth ; 
then come to pass the words of Toum. 
Toum the god am I, as the closer , 1 as 
the opener. I am but One ; I am in 
Nu, the primeval water, I am Ra at his 
first appearing, when he became ruler 
of what he had made. What then is 
that ? It is Ra at the beginning when 
he ruled . . . when he rose in the city 
of Suten-henen (Heracleopolis Magna) 

1 Renouf quotes Rev. i. 8 : ‘I am the Alpha and the 
Omega, saith the Lord God, which is and which was, and 
which is to come, the Almighty,’ but see also iii. 7. 



as a king . . . when as yet the pillars 
of Shu (the god who separated sky 
from earth and supported the former) 
were not. It was he that was on the 
stairs (high ground) of Khemennu (the 
city of the Eight Gods, Hermopolis) ; 
behold he destroyed \_the children :] of 
failure , the great god . . . [who is self- 
created~\ even Nu , the primeval water, 
the same . . . [the father\ of the gods ; 
otherwise said , Ra it is . . . [ who cause th~] 
his names to be the company of the gods} 
What then is that? Ra it is who 
createth [his own members] . . . then 
arose [the gods] who are in the train 
of Ra. I am he whom none of the 
gods may resist. What then is that ? 
It is Toum who is in his disc , other- 
wise, Ra in his rising , on the horizon of 
the east of the sky. I am Y esterday, I 
know To-morrow . 2 What then is that ? 

1 Renouf aptly quotes the saying, ‘Nomina Numena , 5 
names are gods, of the Schoolmen. The names of Ra are 
said, when taken together, to compose ‘the cycle of the 

2 Yesterday and To-morrow are the two lion-gods in the 
frieze : Yesterday faces the right. 


Yesterday is Osiris , Now ( To-morrow ) 
is Ra , that day of the destruction of 
the enemies of Neb-er-tcher (the in- 
violate god, Osiris, Lord of All), when 
he at the same time made his son Horns 
king : otherwise said , the day when is 
fixed the festival of doing homage at the 
burial of Osiris by his father Ra. Then 
Ra, he made strife among the gods, 
when he gave command . . . [for 
Osiris to be lord] of the mountain of 
the West. What then is that? Amentet 
(the West) belongs to the spirits of the 
gods when he gave command to the gods 
for Osiris to be lord of the mountain of 
the West . Otherwise said \ Amentet is 
the place ( things ) which Ra hath given 
to every god to reach ( i.e . the West is 
the limit). He , Ra , ariseth andfighteth , 
because of it does the Osiris, the great 
royal wife N. I know that god that 
is within there. What then is that ? 
It is Osiris : Praises of Ra is his name : 
Spirit of Ra is his name ; he begat him- 
self \ the Osiris, etc. I am the Bennu- 



bird, 1 which is in [An, or Heliopolis] 
... I am the keeper of the account of 
things that are and that come into 
being. What then is that ? His body ; 
otherwise said , to all eternity and ever- 
lastingness ; that which belongs to 
eternity is the day, everlastingness is 
the night: the Osiris , etc., N. I am 
[Min] . . . [may] his two feathers [be 
upon my head] . . . his father. That 
which belongs to his coming forth is his 
birth . . . his two feathers on his head: 
the coming forth of Isis and Nephthys 
. . . they stand zipon his head : the two 
ursei, the very great [which are on] 
the forehead of his father Toum : other- 
wise said, his . . . are the two feathers 
on his head. It is the Osiris, etc., N. 
. . . upon his (her) place (land), he 
(she) has come from his (her) city. 
What does that mean ? From the twin- 
horizon of his (her) father Toum. 
Done away are his (her) defects, 

1 The common heron : it is associated with the Sun-god 
because the word ben means to go round, revolve. — Renouf. 


abolished are his (her) deficiencies. 
What then is that ? It is the cutting 
off of part of the body of the Osiris , etc. 
N. \before all the gods ] . . . all that 
belongs to her (guardian ?). What 
then is that? It is the purification 
on the day of his [her] birth, in the 
great and mighty double-nest (the 
two lakes in the frieze) which is in 
Suten-henen on the day of the offerings 
[made by] the followers (lit. intelligent 
beings) of the great god who is there. 
What then is that ? [Millions of 
years] is the name of the one ; Great 
Green Lake is the name of the other, 
a pool of natron and a pool of Maat 
(nitre or salt, used in embalming. — 
Renouf). T raverser of Millions of years 
is the name of one, Great Green Lake 
is the name of the other. Otherwise 
said , Begetter of Millions of years is the 
name of one, [Great] Green Lake is the 
name of the other. Now regarding the 
god . . . who is there, it is [Ra himself]. 
I traverse ... I know ... it is the 



underworld . . . where nothing grows, 
the northern gate [of the tomb?]. Now, 
concerning the pool of Maati (Two 
Truths) it is Abydos, otherwise said , 
the road on which his father Toiim 
travelleth when he goeth to the field of 
Aaru (The fields of the Blessed). I 
come, I the Osiris, great royal wife, 
divine wife, N. triumphant, to the place 
of the double . . . the gate of the Sacred 
Land. What then is that ? It is the 
Field of Aaru that brings forth the food 
of the gods, behind the shrine . The gate 
Tchesert (the underworld) is the gate 
of the pillars of Shu. Now concerning 
the Duat (underworld), What then is 
that? It is the Osiris, the great royal 
wife, lady of the Two Lands, N. tri- 
umphant. Now , concerning the Duat , it 
is the gate of Tchesert .’ 

Here the inscription ends at the door, and 
it must be confessed rather lamely. Another 
sentence, and the artist could have put into 
the mouth of the queen a pathetic petition 
that would have been the climax of her 


desire. Throughout the speech she pre- 
sumes her identification with every god she 
names : what happened to them, happens to 
her, what they did she did, etc. ; and now, 
standing within the threshold of the next 
world, having had all defects and impurities 
cleansed in the pools of the ‘ double-nest/ 
she might have touchingly cried, ‘ O ye who 
are in the presence (or who have gone 
before), let me grasp your hands, me who 
have become one of you.’ — Renouf. 

This inscription, even had it been entire, 
forms but a small, yet perhaps the oldest, 
portion of chapter xvn. It was meant to be 
an acknowledgment on the part of the 
deceased of his belief in his identity with 
Toum and all the ancient deities, and their 
whole history. What they had been, and 
were then, the deceased appropriated to 
himself, so as to become as divine as they : 
— a singular anticipation of the doctrine of 
transferred merit. From its statement here 
we can understand some of the pictures on 
the frieze. The queen has come forth from 
the day of her earthly life, and reached, or is 



about to reach, her destined rest ; she is now 
prepared, having perhaps recited on earth 
the words 4 of the praisings and glorifyings 
of going into the Unseen Land,’ to undergo 
all the transformations that the god Toum 
underwent, to play at draughts in her hall, 
and to come forth as a living soul. The 
draughts-playing is given as the first picture. 
The ancient Egyptians loved the game ; so 
much so that it was deemed worthy of being 
transferred as a celestial recreation to the 
next world. In the pavilion at Medinet 
Habou Rameses 111. is seen playing at 
draughts with one of his ladies. Here the 
queen sits in her hall at her other-world 
pleasure. Dr. Nash, in an exhaustive 
article on draughts-playing in the Proceed- 
ings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 
quotes the late Dr. Birch : 4 Did the deceased, 
or his shade, play for his soul against any 
god or accuser ? or did the spirits of the 
departed play against one another, or alone?’ 
also Prof. Wiedemann, referring to a stele in 
Vienna, 4 His soul is in his grave, she plays 
draughts with him/ and Dr. Nash pertinently 


asks, 4 Who shall say what esoteric meaning 
the Egyptian priests may have attached to 
the game of draughts ? ’ (vol. xxiv. p. 348). 

The queen’s name and titles are : 4 The 
Osiris, the royal wife, lady of the Two 
Lands, N. before the great god,’ and she 
‘ comes forth as a living soul,’ in the shape 
of a bird with a woman’s head, standing on 
the top of the tomb. The queen herself, 
crowned with vulture diadem, kneels in front 
of her soul, with hands uplifted in adoration 
of the two lions before her. Her name and 
titles again appear, as essential to her 
existence. The two lions, back to back, 
are ‘ Yesterday ’ (to right) and ‘ To-morrow ’ 
(to left) — the past and the future — as ex- 
plained in the inscription ; between them is 
the symbol of the extended sky, with the sun’s 
disc resting between the horizons of East and 
West. When the queen says, ‘ I am Yester- 
day and I know To-morrow,’ she probably 
means that, being now divine, all time is 
known and open before her. The bright- 
blue bennu bird is so named, and stands 
facing the bier on which Osiris lies : the 



etymology connects it with the sun ‘ that 
turns back or round ’ day by day, and hence 
the bird became a symbol of resurrection, 
the phoenix of man, returning to life again 
like the sun. This ancient Egyptian belief 
persisted even into Christian times. The 
bird stands here by the bier of the dead 
Osiris (or the queen) in token of returning 
to life again : the body is watched over by 
Nephthys at the head, and Isis at the foot, 
the latter occupying the more honourable 
position as she looks towards the face of 
Osiris. Both are in the form of hawks, the 
sacred bird of the tribe. The queen, in the 
text, represents herself as having gone 
through the same changes as Osiris. F urther 
on, we have the god called ‘ Millions of 
Years,’ holding a notched palm-branch, the 
hieroglyph of his name, in one hand, while 
his left stretches towards one of the lakes 
named in the text. Beneath this lake is the 
‘eye,’ not mentioned in the text, and it 
occurs again, placed on a tomb or pylon, 
where it is adored by a god. The ‘ Eye of 
Horus’ stands for any gift bestowed by 


deity, ‘ the prototype of all gifts.' The 
figure between the pools is probably the god 
called ‘Great Green Lake,' and the pools 
over which he stretches his hands are the 
pools of natron and salt. In this ‘double- 
nest,' as they are called, the queen says she 
has been purified ; and considering the 
substances contained in the pools they 
probably refer to the process of mummifica- 
tion and protection of the body from decay, 
rather than to moral cleansing. This seems 
also apparent from their position between 
the bier and the tomb here figured, but not 
named, as in the papyrus of Ani, Re-stau, 
‘gate or entrance of the funeral passages.' 
At the corner we have the great cow, Meh- 
urt, called in the papyrus of Ani, ‘ the eye of 
Horus,’ with a menat suspended from her 
neck, and a flail or scourge, as a symbol of 
authority, behind her, crouching on a pylon. 
Upon her thighs, according to a later passage 
in chapter xvil, not given here, the night 
Sun-god is born in the West in the evening. 
She is therefore another type of the new life 
for the deceased. Further to the right we 

ROOM 1 29 

have another bier or funeral chest in which 
is a crouching jackal, the animal sacred to 
Anubis, the guardian of the tomb. Beside 
the bier are the four genii of the dead, or 
the children of Horus, all man-headed, who 
guard the internal organs of the body, heart, 
liver, etc. They are followed by the seven 
Khus , spirits or shining Ones, figures of 
deities mentioned later in chapter xvn. 
(Papyrus of Ani), who were appointed 
originally by Anubis to watch over and 
protect the dead body of Osiris. The first 
three are not named here, but in that 
papyrus they are called Maa-atef-f, Kheri- 
beq-f, and Horu-Khenti-maati ; and the re- 
maining four, who also represent the four 
cardinal points, with their proper heads, are 
Qebh-sennuf (jackal -headed), Dua-mutf 
(hawk-headed), Hapi (dog-headed), and 
Mesta or Amset (man-headed). They, the 
four children of Horus, are often represented 
as standing before Osiris, the Judge and 
supreme god of the next world, as indeed 
they are represented in this tomb. They 
seem to suggest a comparison with the ‘ four 


living creatures ’ of the Book of the Revela- 
tion. The whole frieze thus reproduces the 
burial ritual, preservation and resurrection 
of the body of Osiris, all which the queen 
accepts and adopts as her own. 

Along the edge of the bench or table, be- 
ginning at the inner door, is the following 
legend: ‘ Saith Osiris Khenti Un-nefer, 
Lord of the Sacred Land, Great God, Royal 
Sovereign ruler of all living beings of 
Aukert (a name for the next world) Ruler 
of . . . beloved daughter of Ra (?), the Lady 
of the Two Lands, great Royal Wife Nefert- 
ari Mer-en-Mut, endowed with life — I have 
given to thee a habitation within Aukert ; 
and thou shinest in the heavens like Ra, and 
art united to an abode in the heart of the 
Sacred Land ; glad of heart is she in the 
abode of the goddess Maat (goddess of Truth 
or Right), who is in the great Company of 
the Gods, (is) the great Royal Wife, etc., N.’ 

The fronts of the supporting pillars of the 
bench also show the titles and cartouche of 
the queen ; the name is repeated over and 
over again, not merely as a decoration but 



as standing for the actual life and person- 
ality of the queen, as representing in fact 
her immortal ego. The preservation of the 
name was inculcated from the earliest ages 
down to the last days of the Egyptian re- 
ligion : in a passage from the text of Pepy 1. 
we read, ‘ Thy name shall live upon earth ; 
thy name shall endure upon earth ; never 
shalt thou perish ; thou shalt not be de- 
stroyed for ever and ever.’ The same idea 
occurs in many passages of the Scriptures ; 
and to efface or blot out a name was equi- 
valent to destroying the personality. 

We now return to the doorway. Here 
we have the queen presenting herself in 
adoration before the two principal gods of 
the next world, Osiris enthroned within a 
shrine, and Anubis behind him. In front 
of Osiris, on a kind of stand, are the four 
children of Horus, this time each with a 
human head. The titles and name of the 
queen, with which we are now familiar, again 
occur, but the words ‘before the great god,’ 
meaning Osiris, are added. Only after 
death might a king be styled ‘ great god ’ : 


during his life he was simply ‘good god.’ 
Osiris is here described as ‘ the first of those 
that are in the West ( i.e . the departed), Un- 
nefer, Lord of the Sacred Land, Great God, 
King of Aukert, dwelling in Abydos/ 
Behind him are the magical signs of ‘ pro- 
tection, life, stability, power, health, glad- 
ness of heart/ Anubis is characterised in 
the usual way ‘ Anpu (or Anup, Anubis) 
Governor of the Divine abode, he who is 
in Ut (or place of embalming), Lord of 
Re-stau, he who is upon his hill or rock, 
Lord of the Sacred Land/ 

We now pass over to the left jamb 
of the Vestibule that leads into the 
small chamber No. 2. The goddess Serk 
(Selk or Serket), with a scorpion emblem 
on her head, stands to welcome the queen 
on her progress in her knowledge of the 
gods. Her speech is : ‘ Saith Serket, lady 
of the sky, mistress of all the gods, I come 
having with me the great royal wife, etc., 
mistress of South and North, N. triumphant 
before Osiris, sovereign lord of Abdu 
(Abydos). I have given (her) a dwelling 

Photo ly A uthor 





ROOM 2 33 

in the sacred land : she shines in the sky- 
like Ra.’ Behind the goddess are the 
usual magical amulet signs of ‘protection, 
etc., around her, like Ra.’ Going round the 
corner we find a large Dad, the symbol of 
the backbone of Osiris, with arms, holding 
crook and scourges, and crowned with 
horned feathers. Here, as on the opposite 
side of the vestibule, it is partly decorative 
and partly emblematic of the reconstruction 
of life in Osiris and therefore for all 
believers. The queen is now conducted 
by the goddess Isis, who takes her by the 
hand and presents her to the god Khepera, 
who with scarabaeus head sits enthroned 
facing them. We need not repeat the 
legend round the queen’s head ; here as 
elsewhere she is described as triumphant 
(see my Sen-no fer's Tomb , p. 7). Isis is 
crowned with horns and sun-disc, as well 
as with the royal uraeus, and holds, like all 
deities, the symbol of power. She says, 

‘ Lo, she comes, the great, etc., N., to an 
abode in the Sacred Land.’ Khepera, the 
god with the scarabaeus head, is so depicted 



as representing perhaps the earliest mani- 
festation of the Sun-god, as coming into 
visible life (Kheper, a beetle, means to 
become , come into being) in the new-born or 
rising sun. He says to the queen, ‘ I give 
thee the everlastingness of Ra, I give thee 
the risings of Ra in the sky, I give thee an 
abode in the Sacred Land, I, Khepera, the 
god who is in his boat, the great god.’ 
The name Khepera, ‘ the god who is in his 
boat,’ appears exactly in this form in chapter 
cxxxiv., Book of the Dead , and seems here 
to refer to the promise given to the queen 
that she will for ever accompany the Sun- 
god in his boat when he rises every new 
day to cross the sky. This is, of course, 
a promise of eternal life. In the Papyrus 
of Nu, chapter cliv., Book of the Dead , ‘the 
divine father Khepera is the divine type of 
him that never saw corruption ... I am 
(the deceased says) the god Khepera, and 
my members shall have an everlasting 
existence. I shall not decay, I shall not 
rot, I shall not putrify, I shall not turn into 
worms, and I shall not see corruption before 



the eye of the god Shu. I shall have my 
being : I shall live : I shall germinate : I 
shall wake up in peace . . . my body shall 
be established, and it shall neither fall into 
ruin, nor be destroyed on this earth.’ — (Dr. 
Budge s Translation , p. 520.) 

The counterpart of the two foregoing 
pictures is on the opposite side of the vesti- 
bule. The goddess Neith, like the goddess 
Serket, conducts the queen into further 
knowledge. Neith is closely associated in 
the oldest mythology with Osiris and Horus, 
and, after the period of this tomb, was 
worshipped mainly at Sais in the Delta. 
The emblem on her head here is supposed 
to be a weaver’s shuttle (it is often an oblong 
shield with two arrows crossed), and from 
that emblem, as well as from her other head- 
dress, the crown of Lower Egypt, not here 
shown, her origin has been deduced from 
the Libyans, a people dwelling on the 
western border of Egypt. (See, for an in- 
structive discussion on this point, P. A. 
Newberry in S. B. Archeology , vol. xxvm. 
pp. 69, 70.) She was thus at once a war- 


goddess, identified by the Greeks with 
Athene, and an industrial goddess, 'the 
inventress of the art of weaving, the weaver 
who made the world of warp and woof.’ 
She is mentioned several times in the Book 
of the Dead \ and the part of the human 
body associated with her is the fore-arm — 
very suitable for a goddess of war. Here 
she says : ‘I, Neith, the great divine mother, 
lady of the sky, mistress of all the gods, I 
come (bringing) with me the daughter be- 
loved, the Osiris, great royal, etc., N. tri- 
umphant before Osiris, the great god, Lord 
of the Sacred Land, I have given to her an 
abode within Aukert. She shall rise like 
Ra.’ The usual amulet signs for protection, 
etc., are behind the goddess. 

As on the other side, the Dad emblem 
again appears. Then Horus-son-of-Isis 
(Heru - si -ast, Greek Harsiesis), with a 
falcon's head, and wearing the double 
crown of Egypt, takes the queen by the 
hand, as his mother on the opposite side 
has done, and presents her to Horus-of-the- 
two- horizons (Heru-akhte, Greek Har- 

Photo by Author 






machis) and to Hat-hor (Het-Heru, abode 
of Horus), both enthroned. This latter 
Horus is a form of Ra, with a falcon’s 
head, crowned by the sun-disc with a 
urseus. He promises to the queen ‘an 
abode with those that are in the Sacred 
Land, a duration of life like Ra’s, an eternity 
in life, stability, and power.’ Hathor wears 
on her head the falcon emblem or totem 
standing for the west, and she is simply 
styled Het-Heru (Hat-hor), protectress or 
president of Thebes, mistress of all the gods. 

The decorative vulture on the lintel, with 
outspread wings, is worthy of notice. She 
represents the goddess ‘ Nekhebt, the 
goddess of the South,’ the tutelary deity 
of the ancient city at El Kab, Nekheb, 
identified by the Greeks as the city of 
Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth. Simi- 
larly we have, as we shall see further on, 
the goddess Uazit, a winged cobra, with 
the crown of Lower Egypt, as the goddess 
of the North, called Buto by the Greeks. 

On the door-posts as we enter Room 
No. 2, are figures of Maat, the goddess of 


Truth, Law or Right, the hieroglyph for 
which is an ostrich feather, worn on her 
head. Forms of Maat, like the Forty-two 
who preside at the judgment before Osiris, 
as well as Maat herself or her symbol, are 
constantly met with on tombs and monu- 
ments. Her priests were held in high 
esteem, and many monarchs, notably Amen- 
hotep hi. (Lord of the Truth of Ra), and his 
reforming son Khu-en-aten, not to mention 
Hatshepsut (Ka-Maat-Ra), embodied the 
word in their names and professed to live 
in and by her. The inscription, which is the 
same, with unimportant variations, on both 
sides reads : ‘ Saith Maat, daughter of Ra, 
I come bringing with me the beloved 
daughter, the Osiris, etc., N. triumphant 
before Osiris, the great god, etc., I have 
given thee an abode within Aukert.’ 

Proceeding to the left side we see N. 
before the god Ptah standing in his shrine, 
and swathed like a mummy, his usual form. 
The queen is offering linen tissues or wrap- 
pings, as the short inscription in front of 
her informs us, ‘The giving of Cloths to 



the Lord of Truth in the Sacred Land/ 
The hieroglyphs for cloths or bandages 
are on the altar table. The inscription 
above the queen gives her a new title : 

‘ The great, etc., ruler of all lands , N., etc/ 
No matter before what god she appears she 
is described as ‘triumphant before Osiris/ 
Ptah stands in a shrine or chapel, in mummy 
form, with the two hands in front grasping 
a sceptre with the symbols of power, life, 
and stability. He stands on another 
symbol expressing truth or law. The 
inscription describes him as ‘ Ptah, Lord 
of Truth, King of the two Lands, beautiful 
of countenance, Lord of his great abode/ 
Ptah is one of the oldest gods, and was 
never merged in the Sun-god : on the con- 
trary he is often called ‘ Father of the 
mighty fathers (the gods), father of the 
beginnings, he who created the sun-egg and 
the moon-egg/ In another place he is said 
to be old and yet always making himself 
young. Memphis was the chief seat of his 
worship, and here it was said of him that, 
like a potter on his wheel, he had turned the 


egg from which the world was hatched. 
He was the patron of all artificers and 
artisans, especially of blacksmiths. It is 
difficult to say what this scene signifies ; 
it may refer to chapter xxm. of the Book 
of the Dead, where the prayer is made, 
* May my mouth be opened by Ptah, and 
may the god of my domain loosen my 
swathings, even the swathings that are over 
my mouth.’ 

Next, on the left hand wall, we have 
an interesting scene presented. It is an 
illustration, with an almost complete text 
of chapter xciv. of the Book of the Dead , 
called here ‘ The chapter of praying for an 
inkstand and palette from Thoth in Neter- 
Khert (underworld).’ The text differs 
from that of any papyrus known to the 
author. In the picture we have the queen 
standing before Thoth, who is enthroned, 
and on an altar-table between them is a 
writing palette, supported by an inkstand, 
on which a small figure of an ape, associated 
with Thoth, sits gazing towards the god. 
The whole stands on the symbol for Truth 



or Right. The scene may also have a re- 
ference to chapter clxxv. of the same book, 
where, among other things, the deceased 
says, ‘ I am thy palette, O Thoth, and I 
bring to thee thine inkstand ; I am not one 
of those who do mischief in secret : let 
not mischief be done unto me . — ( Renouf s 
Translation.') Thoth, in the scene before us, 
is described as ‘ Lord of the City of the Eight 
(that is Khemennu ; the eight are the adoring 
apes at sunrise, four on each side of the 
Sun -god's boat), great god, chief of the 
Sacred Land, righteous judge of the com- 
pany of the gods,’ and like the other deities 
he also accords ‘ a seat or abode in the 
Sacred Land.’ The queen is styled as 
before, and then comes the text of eight 
vertical columns, beginning on the right : 
‘ Chapter of praying for inkstand and palette 
from Thoth in Neter-Khert : the Osiris 
great royal wife, etc., N. triumphant : Hail, 
O great one beholding [thy] father, thou 
guardian of the Book of Thoth : Here am 
I, I am come, thy glorified one, I am a 
soul, with thy strength am I equipped 


[and] with the writings of Thoth. I have 
brought them [for] going through (?) Aker 
(used elsewhere of the dark hold of the 
boat that must be traversed), who is with 
Suti (darkness). I have brought inkstand, 
I have brought palette, things that belong 
to Thoth’s own hand, the secrets that are in 
them are divine (lit. gods). Here am I, 
here am I [as] a scribe. I have brought 
the remains (offal) of Osiris, writings (written 
upon ?), I have made (copied ?) the words 
of the great and beautiful god every day, 
in beauty. Thou hast decreed for me, O 
Heru-akhte (Harmachis) that I make (do ?) 
Truth and lead Truth along.’ There are 
several slips in the text. 

The wall opposite the door is divided 
into two scenes ; the queen before Osiris 
on the left half, and before Toum on the 
right. It is evident from the relative posi- 
tion of the two gods, back to back, with the 
magic fan of ‘ protection ’ between them, as 
well as from the position of the queen, that 
we must approach this middle wall from left 
and right from the door. Taking, there- 


( Reproduced by perm iss io n of the Trustees of the 
British Museum ) 




fore, the Osiris scene first, we see the queen 
making a gigantic and sumptuous offering 
of all kinds, including animals’ skins, to 
Osiris enthroned, accompanied as before 
by the Four children of Horus on a 
standard. Between the offerings and the 
standard is what has been called the ‘ fetish ’ 
of Osiris. It is not, however, peculiar to 
him ; it goes with Anubis as well. It is an 
animal’s skin or body, fixed to a pole, with 
blood dripping from the neck into a bowl 
beneath. No one knows what it means. 
The queen has a sceptre of power and 
might in her right hand, and touches the 
offerings with her left. She says ‘ she pays 
the offering due to her father Osiris, the 
great god, straightway [does] his daughter, 
the great royal wife, etc., N. ? Osiris says : 
* I have given [to thee] the risings of Ra 
in the sky ; I have given all everlastingness 
that is in my power, I have given all eternity 
that is in my power, I have given all joy of 
heart that is in my power, I, Osiris, the First 
of those that are in Amentet, Un-nefer, the 
sovereign of all living beings, great god, 


ruler of the Sacred Land, Lord of Eternity, 
Ruler for evermore.’ 

Returning to the door, we see on the 
right, first, a ram-headed mummy figure, 
supported in front by Isis and behind by 
Nephthys. The Osiris figure — for it is he 
— is the dead body of the Sun-god, with the 
ram-head of Amen, and a red sun-disc above 
the horns, representing Ra, as the mummy 
figure is indeed here expressly called. 
This figure seems to show that Osiris was 
identified with Ra, and that the cult of 
Amen was being introduced into the Osirian 
doctrine. The scene probably refers to 
chapter clxxxii., Book of the Dead , called the 
‘ Book of vivifying Osiris, of giving air to 
him whose heart is motionless, through the 
action of Thoth, etc .’—(Navil/e.) The in- 
scription in front of the mummy reads, ‘ Ra 
rests (or sets) in Osiris,’ and behind we have 
the converse, ‘ Osiris sets in Ra,’ a form of 
words found in the chapter just quoted. In 
any case, the queen will be re-vivified like 
this Osiris figure. 

Towards the corner and facing the two 



rows of cattle stands the queen adoring them. 
These seven cows and the bull are the 
Sacred Kine, who will provide sustenance for 
her in the next life. A table of green food, 
apparently, stands before each animal ; and 
below are the four steering oars of the sky, 
referring to the four cardinal points. Over 
all is the sign for the sky, and at either side 
stands a long user , the symbol of power. 
The picture illustrates chapter cxlviii. of the 
Book of the Dead , ‘giving sustenance to 
the deceased in the Netherworld, and de- 
livering him from evil things.’ Professor 
Naville explains that the giving of nourish- 
ment to the deceased delivers him from all 
evil ; — in fact it is so stated in the rubric to 
this chapter in the Papyrus of Nu. Naville 
thus translates the beginning of the chapter : 
‘ Hail to thee who shinest as living soul, and 
who appearest on the horizon, N. who is in 
the boat knows thee ; he knows thy name, 
he knows the names of the seven cows and 
of their bull : they give bread and drink to 
the glorified soul. You who give sustenance 
to the inhabitants of the West, give bread 


and drink to the soul of N., grant that he 
may be your follower, and be between your 
thighs ( i.e . be suckled by the divine cows, 
like Hatshepsu, at Der el Bahari, by 
Hathor).’ The cows and the bull have a 
name apiece ; they are variously given on 
different monuments (eg. in Medinet Habou 
Temple) and in different papyri. Here, be- 
ginning at right of top row — (i) Red cow, 
name, Dwelling of the Kas of Neb-er-tcher 
(inviolate god, Osiris) ; (2) Black and yellow 
cow, name, Hidden one, dwelling in her 
place ; (3) Brown and flecked cow, name, 
Divine mummified form of the god ; (4) 
White cow, yellow underneath, name, Storm 
of the sky, raising the gods ; (5) Grey cow 
with dark spots, name, Joined to life (full of 
life), with long locks of hair ; (6) Red cow, 
name, Greatly beloved, red of hair; (7) White 
cow, name, Mighty is her name, on her 
pedestal. The Bull, black and yellow, is 
named, The bull, the husband of the cows, 
of those who dwell in the House of the Red 
ones. The Steering Oars are thus de- 
scribed, beginning at the right — (1) Beautiful 


• /• 


4 7 

power, beautiful steering oar of the northern 
sky ; (2) Beautiful steering oar of the eastern 
sky, pilot that goes round the two lands 
(the whole earth) ; (3) Beautiful steering oar 
of the southern sky ; (4) Beautiful steering 
oar of the western sky. 

We now reach the counterpart of the 
presentation of offerings to Osiris. The 
queen makes a similar offering to Toum, 
one of the primeval gods, as the long in- 
scription in the outer chamber has told us. 
The queen’s address here is the same as 
on the other side, with the exception of the 
god’s name. Toum, who is always repre- 
sented as a man, is attired exactly like a 
king of Upper and Lower Egypt, with user 
and ankh y while on the side of his throne, 
as on the throne of Osiris, we have the sam 
sign, or symbol of the union of the Two 
Lands. Between Osiris and Toum is the 
large magical fan, symbol of ‘ protection,’ 
which is seen behind the king even in 
battle ; and behind both deities are the 
other amulet signs as before. Toum also 
promises the queen < the rising of Ra in the 


sky, eternity in life, stability, and power, 
everlastingness like Ra, and all joy of heart.’ 
He is styled ‘ Lord of the Two Lands of 
On (Heliopolis), Great God, Lord of the 
Sacred Land.’ 

On emerging from Room 2, and passing 
towards the doorway of the wooden stair- 
case, we notice a large figure of Osiris on 
the right hand facing us. He is a mummy 
figure with a green face, as representing 
the growth or germination of the new life 
of the body as from a seed. He stands on 
Truth, and makes the promise of ‘eternity 
of life, like his (her) father Ra,’ to the queen. 
The figure is robed like the queen’s, and 
may thus be meant for her. The mysterious 
skin on the pole is here again. His titles 
are more numerous now : ‘ Osiris, dwelling 
in Amentet, Un-nefer, King of Life, Great 
God, ruler of the company of all the Gods 
to Eternity, ruler of everlastingness, Over- 
lord of the Sacred Land.’ 

The jambs of the door to the staircase 
yield once more an opportunity for the 
artist to inscribe the titles and name of the 



queen ; and on the left and right thicknesses 
of the door we have the goddesses of South 
and North respectively, with their appropriate 
crowns, before the cartouches of the queen, 
surmounted by plumes. The southern side of 
a door or gate is always the more honourable. 

Similarly, inside, as in the outer room, 
we have on the South the scorpion goddess 
Serket, and on the North the shuttle goddess 
Neith, welcoming the queen on her journey 
in the Duat or Underworld. The speech 
of Neith is the better preserved, and reads : 
‘ Says Neith, the divine mother, lady of the 
sky, president of the Sacred Land, I come 
having with me the great royal wife, whom 
he (she) loves, the lady of the Two Lands, 
N. triumphant before Osiris. 7 Serket is not, 
of course, styled ‘ divine mother ’ like Neith. 
The usual amulet signs are behind both 


The descent to the Underworld is beauti- 
fully decorated. The figures of the queen 
and the deities represented are disposed in 



the most attractive way, the utmost being 
made of the space at the artists disposal. 
Across the lintel of the lower entrance is 
an enchanting figure of the goddess Maat 
kneeling, with outspread wings. We begin, 
as usual, with the left-hand wall. Here we 
have the queen offering two bowls (of wine, 
water, or milk) to Isis, behind whom is 
Nephthys, both enthroned. Then further 
along on the same level, we have a kneeling 
figure of the goddess Maat with her ostrich 
feather (Truth) on her head, and wings out- 
stretched towards the name of the queen in 
protection of her personality. Still further 
forward is a winged uraeus performing the 
same sacred duty to two names of the queen, 
one of which is crowned by the sun-disc, 
and rests on the sign for gold. The body 
of the serpent waves gracefully along in 
smaller undulations into the narrowing space. 

Then underneath, beginning about the 
kneeling figure of Maat, is another picture 
in which the Jackal Anubis, couched on a 
tomb, welcomes the queen in a long speech. 
Another speech lies below the broad line 



which extends to the jackal’s fore-paws. 
Then behind Anubis is the goddess Isis 
again, but this time kneeling on a large gold 
sign, with her hands resting on the seal or 
ring which is supposed to represent infinity. 

The same scheme of ceremonial decora- 
tion is followed on the right-hand wall, with 
certain differences in the deities represented. 

Beginning, then, with the left-hand wall, 
the queen offers two bowls to Isis, but no 
mention of that goddess is made in the in- 
scription above the queen. Osiris is the 
goal of her journeyings in the Duat, conse- 
quently his titles are reproduced at some 
length, and it is noteworthy that for the 
first time behind the queen we find here 
the amulet signs of ‘protection, life, stability, 
all health, and all joy of heart around her 
like Ra,’ as if she were now a goddess. 
Osiris is again called ‘ Ruler of the Cycle 
of all the gods.’ Isis says : ‘ I have given 
to the goddess (queen) eternity like Ra, 
Isis the great divine mother, lady of the 
sky, mistress of all the gods.’ Nephthys is 
merely named ‘ lady of the sky, mistress 


of the two lands ’ ; while Maat is called 
‘ daughter of Ra, lady of the sky, mistress 
of the two lands.’ 

A little way down the wooden steps is 
the beginning of the tableau, in which 
Anubis is the principal figure as the 
guardian of the inner Tomb. In Sen- 
nefer’s Tomb he is similarly placed, but on 
the inside lintel of the inner chamber. The 
speech is as follows : — 

‘ Saith Anpu, he who is in the em- 
balming place, great god over-lord ot 
the Sacred Land, here comes the great 
royal wife, etc., N. triumphant before 
Osiris, etc. — she conies to me. I have 
given the goddess (the queen) an abode 
among those that are in the Sacred Land. 
She riseth (shineth) in the sky like [her] 
father Ra. Receive thou ornaments 
upon thy head ; be thou united to Mother 
Isis together with Nephthys. They 
create thy beauty like father Ra. Thou 
dost illuminate Aukert (the underworld) 
when thou sendest forth thy beams 
among the great company of the gods 



and among those that are in the Sacred 
Land. I have made for thee an abode ; 
Nut, the divine mother, does homage to 
thy face even as does Horus of the two 
horizons to thee. Lo ! I have made 
the spirits of Pe and the spirits of 
Nekhen. Rejoice thou like father Ra, 
dwelling in the Amentet. The great 
company of the gods is the power among 
those that exist, they are the protectors 
of thy members on thy journey to 
Mother Isis. Thou restest calmly on 
the seat of Osiris. May the Lords of 
the Sacred Land receive thee, and 
mayest thou be glad at heart onwards 
to eternity, O great royal wife, etc., N. 
triumphant before Osiris. Saith Anpu, 
the Jackal god, who is in the place of 
embalming, the great god, Lord of Re- 
stau, there comes to me a daughter be- 
loved, the great royal wife, etc., N., etc. 
I have given [thee] to rise (shine) and 
rest on the seat of Osiris, as thou 
journeyest to Mother Isis together with 
Nephthys. The great company of the 


gods are thy protectors for evermore/ 
(to be repeated). 

The inscription in columns below the long 
horizontal line refers to Isis, and reads : — 

‘ Saith I sis, daughter of Ra, great mother, 
lady of the sky, [mistress] of all the 
gods, ruler of the Sacred Land, there 
cometh to me the great royal wife, etc., 
N. triumphant before O, etc. I have 
given her an abode in the Sacred Land 
in presence of Un-nefer. Thou risest 
(shinest) like the Aten (sun-disc) in the 
sky for ever-more like Ra.’ 

The speech continues in front of the kneel- 
ing goddess : — 

‘ Saith Isis, great divine mother, etc., 
. . . there cometh to me the great 
royal wife, etc., N/ 

and behind we have the same wearisome 
promises of an ‘abode in the Neter-Khert, 
and rising in the sky like Ra, and of giving 
light in Aukert, etc.’ 

Returning to the top of the staircase we 
find that the right-hand wall presents an 
almost similar picture, the difference being 



in some of the personages and in a few 
phrases of the texts. Instead of Isis we 
have Hathor, to whom the queen offers two 
bowls ; behind Hathor is Serket, instead of 
Nephthys, but the latter goddess takes the 
place of Isis, kneeling on the sign for gold. 
The queen and Anubis are reproduced as 
on the opposite wall, but she is here called, 
in addition, ‘beloved palm-branch’ (a term of 
endearment). Hathor, wearing her custom- 
ary horns and disc, is styled ‘ Protectress 
of Thebes, lady of the sky, mistress of all 
the gods,’ and promises ‘an eternity like Ra, 
and rising in the sky like him ’ ; while Serket 
follows up with similar promises and adds 
‘peace for (of) eternity.’ Maat is styled as 
before, ‘ daughter of Ra, ruler of the Sacred 
Land.’ The long speech of Anubis differs 
only in a few unimportant phrases from that 
on the opposite wall, but is more correctly 
written. The discourse of Nephthys is 
also much the same as that of Isis on the 
opposite wall, with a few different epithets. 
The speeches need not be reproduced here. 

The legend across the beautiful lintel with 


the figure of Maat reads : ‘ Saith Maat, 
daughter of Ra, protected is the Son 
(daughter), the great royal wife, N. trium- 
phant.’ Over all is the sky. The side-posts 
give the queen’s name and titles as before. 

As we pass into the Pillared Room (No. 4), 
we have, on either side of the doorway, the 
same goddess Maat ; and on left and right, 
further in, we find, respectively, the uraei 
of South and North, supported by the neb 
(lordship) sign, and also by a Dad , with the 
queen’s omnipresent name. 

We are now in the vestibule of the pillared 
room. It is devoted to the arrival of the 
queen at the various pylons or ‘ mansions ’ 
of the House of Osiris. Each is guarded by 
monsters armed with knives, and before the 
queen can ‘ pass on ’ to Osiris she must 
know and be able to pronounce with ‘ power 
and authority ’ their several names. The 
deceased must also address the gate before it 
can be opened. A knowledge of the ‘ name ’ 
is essential to her ‘salvation.’ Are we to 
suppose that these monsters represent the 
difficulties of life, either present or future ? 



The Arits (cells or ‘mansions’) vary in 
number; but they were usually seven; only 
five are shown here. We begin on the 
left as usual. Next the entrance the queen 
stands adoring, with a table of offerings in 
front, a hawk-headed monster with horns, 
holding a tall palm-branch (?) in one hand, 
and a huge knife in the other. Before him 
is his Arit, and behind him is a crocodile- 
headed monster, armed with a knife in both 
hands ; while quite in the corner is another 
figure holding an ankh (life) in both hands. 
These three are respectively the doorkeeper, 
the watcher, and the herald of the First Arit. 
Three such deities were in charge of each 

Immediately in front of the queen are 
her name and titles ; and with the next 
column begins the story, which reads towards 
the corner. It says : — 

‘ Chapter of knowing the arits of the 
House of Osiris in the Amentet, and 
the gods who are in the divisions 
(< qertu , caverns, divisions) and their 
gods, to whom thou hast made offer- 


ings on earth. Saith the Osiris its 
doorkeeper (guardian) Se-khed-hrau- 
astu-aru (he with face overturned, and 
has many attributes) is the name of its 
watcher (adjuster) ; the name of its 
herald is Hui-kheru (he with a loud 
voice). Saith the Osiris great royal 
wife, etc., N. triumphant, when she 
cometh to the arits : I am the great 
name, who createth [her own] light. 
I am come before thee, O Osiris, 
Governor of Amentet ; I adore thee ; 
pure are thy emanations (effluxes) 
which flow (se-tau) from thee, which 
make thy name of Re-setau. 1 Hail to 
thee, Osiris, in thy strength, in thy 
might, in Re-setau, arise thou in thy 
[strength] Osiris, in thy strength, in 
thy power, in thy strength, thou, in 
Re-setau, thy strength, thou, in Abydos. 
Thou goest round the sky, thou sailest 
in front of Ra (in the boat), thou be- 
holdest all mankind, the only one who 
goest round with Ra in it, for thou art 

1 A good example of philological mythology. 



called Osiris. I am Sahu (a divine 
body or mummy (?)). I have said ; it 
will come to pass ; there is no repulse 
for me at it (the arit) at the walls of 
burning coals. Open is the arit orbit 
before the Osiris, the great royal wife 
N., etc.’ 

Before taking the Second Arit, which 
begins beyond the door of the side-room on 
the left, we shall examine the latter. It pro- 
bably was the real mortuary room, and led to 
the mummy shaft. On the door-posts, as be- 
fore, we have the uraeus goddesses of South 
and North respectively, with the names of 
the cities of Nekheb and Buto. Both deities 
are styled ‘ Mistress of all the gods/ and pro- 
mise ‘All life, stability, power, health, around 
her/ Further in on the left are the names 
and titles of the queen, and the queen her- 
self, as a mummy, for the first time. On the 
corresponding wall on the opposite side 
is a Dad figure with arms hanging down, 
between two symbols of power, with an 
ankh hanging from each wrist. On the left- 
hand wall we have, as we should expect in 


this room, two of the funerary genii (the 
children of Horus), Mesta (Amset) and 
Duamutf, with Isis towards the angle, the 
chief mourner at the burial. Mesta promises 
the queen the usual ‘ abode in the Sacred 
Land,’ and adds, ‘ we two ( i.e . himself and 
Duamutf) have come as her protectors in 
thy (sic) abode of eternity,’ said by Duamutf, 
the Osiris, etc., N., etc. Isis, who is merely 
named, extends life to the queen ; the first 
time this has been done. On the opposite 
wall the other pair of the funerary genii, 
Hapi and Qebhsennuf, perform similar func- 
tions, with much the same words, ‘ We two 
come as thy (masc.) protectors.’ Nephthys, 
the other mourner at the burial, has for 
titles, ‘ Lady of the sky, Mistress of all the 
gods, Eye of Ra. . . .\ Mistress of the 
Two Lands of Horus, united to an abode 
in Mannu (mountain of the Sunset).’ 

The culminating picture of this room is 
of course the rear wall. The name and 
titles of the queen run along the frieze ; in 
the middle is a human head (the queen’s ?) 

1 A word I cannot read. 


6 1 

with a winged urseus on either side. To left 
and right, facing inwards, are two figures 
of Thoth, ibis-headed, holding a pole in both 
hands, which supports the sky, with the 
eyes of South and North respectively behind 
him. On the extreme left the inscription 
reads : ‘ Saith the South land to thee (masc. 
pronoun, though the queen is meant), thou 
(masc.) restest upon it, the Osiris Nefert-ari, 
Mer-en-mut,’ and the North land on the 
other side repeats the words. The centre 
column has : ‘ The worthy before Anpu, the 
Osiris royal wife N.’ Mesta and Duamutf 
on right and left of centre column face the 
Thoth of the North, whose name never occurs 
here. The queen is said to be 4 worthy ’ 
before both those genii. The scene seems 
to refer to chapter clxi., Book of the Dead , 
entitled ‘ The chapter of unfastening the 
opening in the sky. Thoth does it so that 
it may be finished when he opens (the sky) 
with Aten.’ The object was to give the de- 
ceased command of the four winds, for breath. 

Coming back to the Pillared Room we 
find the Second Arit on the left-hand wall, 


beginning at the door of the side -room. 
The figure of the queen is not repeated 
before the arits on this side. To the right 
of the columns of text is the pylon or gate, 
and behind the ‘ mansion ’ are the three 
monsters of the Arit, the first goat-headed, 
the second lioness-headed with two snakes 
on her head, and the third a male figure 
with an ankh in both hands. The goat- 
headed monster has a knife and a palm- 
branch, while the lioness-headed creature 
is doubly armed with a knife. They are 
the doorkeeper, the watcher, and the herald 
of the second Arit. The inscription, begin- 
ning from the left, says : — 

4 Arit Second : name of guardian of its 
door is Un-hat-sen (open is their 
breast ?), name of watcher, Seqed-hra 
(he who turneth the face) ; name of its 
herald, in it, is Uset (the eater). Saith 
the Osiris, etc., N., etc., when she cometh 
to this xArit, he (she) sitteth and does 
the height of his desire, and weigheth 
words as the second of Thoth. The 
qualities of the Osiris, etc., N. tri- 



umphant, are the qualities of Thoth. 
When the Maats are helpless, those 
hidden ones who live on Maat (truth) 
in their years. The Osiris, etc., N. 
triumphant before Osiris is mighty in 
making offerings at the moment (the 
right time). He (she) has made her 
way out of the fire ; forward goes the 
Osiris, etc., N. [she] hath made a way. 
Grant thou that I may pass on and 
accomplish the seeing of Ra, and re- 
volve with Ra among those that make 
offerings. The Osiris, etc., N. tri- 
umphant, to make a way (?) grant that 
I pass on and accomplish the seeing of 
Ra and revolve with Ra.’ 

The Third Arit follows. The text in the 
thirteen long columns is very much de- 
stroyed. The first monster is ram- or goat- 
headed, and has palm-branch and knife, with 
buckle-amulet at belt ; the head of the next 
figure is wanting, and the rest of the wall to 
the corner is destroyed. 

Arit Third : Name of the guardian 
of its door is Eater of the dirt of . . . ; 


name of watcher is Watchful One, 
name of its herald is (wanting). Saith 
Osiris, etc., N. . . . [when she cometh] 
to the third Arit, I am the hidden . . . 
water, the judge of the Rehui (the two 
Combatant Gods, Horus and Set.) I 
have come, I have destroyed . . . 
[what is wrong] in the Osiris. I am 
he that is girt about , 1 coming from 
... [I have] made matters good in 
[Abydos] and opened a path in Re- 
stau. Soothed have I the hurts of 
Osiris, soothed the hurts of Osiris, 
I have straightened (balanced) his 
standard. I have made a way in Re- 
stau. I have made a way. Shineth 
the Osiris, etc., N. triumphant before all 
the gods. [I] have soothed the hurts 
of Osiris, Dwelling in the Amentet, 
Un-nefer, Sovereign of all living be- 

Arit Fourth. The text is wanting, only 
the monsters are given. 

1 The text is quite clear here : it is the same as in 
chapter cxvil., Book of the Dead . 


Arit Fifth is on the rear wall, left half. 
The inscription runs : — 

c Arit Fifth: Name of [guardian] of 
its door, Ankh-en-fentu (He that lives 
on worms) ; name of their (its) watcher, 
Shabu (flaming fire) ; name of herald in 
it, Deb-herk-ha-Kheft (Naville trans- 
lates, “the bow which strikes the 
furious”?). Saith the Osiris, great royal, 
etc., N., etc., when she cometh to Arit 
Fifth, I have brought the two jaw- 
bones that are in Re-stau (compare 
chapter cxxxvi. b., where much the 
same text occurs : Naville prefers to 
translate, “ I have closed the doors in 
Re-stau ”) ; I have [brought] to thee 
rays of light 1 that are in On (Helio- 
polis), totalling his multitudes there. 
I have repulsed Apep (the serpent 
opponent of Ra) ; I have healed 
(literally, “ spit upon ” 2 ; compare chap- 

1 The only determinative here of the word fiesd is the 
sun’s disc with rays, hence the translation given above. 
Another determinative sometimes appears with the word, 
which would then perhaps mean ‘ bones.’ 

2 Spitting was a common method of divine healing 
among the Egyptians. So Thoth healed Horus when he 



ter cii.) the wounds [he made]; I have 

made a way among you/ 

Here the Arits end. The artist had 
probably miscalculated his space and had 
no room for more. 

At this point it will be convenient to 
examine the pillars. Their decoration 
presents a certain amount of symmetry, as 
in all tombs with pillars supporting the roof. 
Looking at them from the entrance, we shall 
call the left-hand pillar A, the right-hand 
one B ; and the two behind these, C and D 
respectively. On A and B we have a 
youthful priest clad in a leopard’s skin, 
called the An-mutf (column or pillar of his 
mother; see Sen-nofers Tomb , p. 22), who 
was supposed to represent Horus the son of 
Osiris performing the filial duty of burying 
his father. For Osiris we must here 
substitute Nefert-ari. Going round by the 
left we have on the faces of A and C, 
opposite the wall, the queen before Hathor 
and Isis successively. If now we stand in 

was wounded by Set. Compare St. Mark vii. 33 : Jesus 
‘ put his fingers into his ears, and he spat and touched his 
tongue’: viii. 23, ‘And when Jesus had spit on his eyes,’ etc. 



the centre of the room, and look towards 
the Sanctuary (Room 7), we have four Osiris 
mummies, one on each pillar, two of which 
are on the left hand, facing the Sanctuary, 
and two, those on the right hand, face the 
outer entrance. The first pair represents the 
progress of the queen in her identification 
with Osiris, the Great God ; while the latter 
pair points to the complete reconstitution of 
all her members ; in other words, the resur- 
rection of her body, as the speech on pillar 
B, to which we shall refer later, declares. 
The speech on pillar A indicates an earlier 
stage, namely the overcoming of all her 
enemies so as to permit her to advance. 
From the same standpoint in the centre of 
the room we can see on the other sides of 
the four pillars a large Dad , the symbol of 
the backbone of Osiris, representing his 
reconstitution or reconstruction (resurrec- 
tion), but note that the queen’s name stands 
on either side of the symbol. This shows 
that she is being associated with Osiris in 
his reconstruction or resurrection. Next, 
passing round to the right of pillar B, we 


have the queen before Isis, and on pillar D 
the queen before Anubis. Lastly, if we stand 
with our back to the Sanctuary entrance, we 
have on the right-hand pillar (C) the queen 
before Hathor, and on the left, pillar D, the 
queen before Isis, the two great mother 
goddesses. Such is the symmetrical scheme 
of decoration, which also serves a religious 
purpose here as in Sen-nofer’s Tomb. 

Let us now examine the pillars individu- 
ally. Pillars A and B are the most instruc- 
tive, as they show us the An-mutf figures. 
That on A, with its inscription, represents 
an earlier stage in the queens other-world 
progress. The priest is a youthful figure, 
in a leopard’s skin, who personates Horus 
the son of Osiris and Isis at his father’s 
burial. He was called, in reference to his 
father, Se-nieri-f, ‘ the son whom he loves,’ 
and in reference to his mother An-mutf, 

‘ pillar or support of his mother.’ The in- 
scription reads : ‘ The Horus An-mutf, I 
am thy son, whom thou lovest, O Father 
Osiris, I am come. Hail to thee, Hail to 
thee, I have beaten down for thee thy 



enemies (said twice). I give to thee, thy 
daughter, whom thou lovest, even the Osiris, 
the great royal wife, Lady of the Two 
Lands, N. triumphant. She rests (sets) in 
the palace of the great company of the gods, 
among the strong ones (the victorious ?) of 
Osiris, united to all that are in the Sacred 

Mr. Griffith (. Deshasheh , p. 47), in refer- 
ring to a curious symbol at Beni- Hasan, 
consisting of a man supporting a monkey- 
figure in an upright position, translates the 
inscription as * pillar of the Ka of the 
mother,’ which appears later as ‘of the Ka 
of his mother ? ; and in Beni Hasan , Hiero- 
glyphics , p. 28, he adds, ‘ The precise signi- 
ficance of the female ape in the Egyptian 
mythology is quite unknown.’ 

On the same pillar to the left, opposite 
the wall, the queen is caressed by Hathor ; 
and further on, pillar C, Isis also receives 
her affectionately. 

The Osiris mummies are variously styled, 

‘ Governor of Amentet, Great God, ruler 
of the Company of the Gods, Lord of 


the Sacred Land, Sovereign Master of 
Eternity,’ and to the queen is promised, as 
before, ‘ a rising like Ra in the sky, an 
abode in the Sacred Land for evermore,’ etc. 
On the Dad symbols she is represented as 
‘ triumphant before Osiris, all the gods, and 
also before Maat’ (unless this be a mistake). 

The An-mutf figure on pillar B makes a 
rather different speech from the other, and 
shows a further stage, as has been said, in 
the progress of Nefert-ari; ‘ Saith Horus : 
Hail ! Father, I am thy son, whom thou 
lovest, I have come with thy members ; I 
have come and have joined together for 
thee thy members ; I bring to thee thy 
heart, Father Osiris, Lord of Amentet. 
Grant thou to unite the great royal wife, 
lady of the Two Lands, N. triumphant, 
before the great company of the gods, 
among those that are in Neter-Khert (the 

Passing round to the right, we have on 
this pillar, Isis endowing the queen with 
life, after all her members have been re- 
united and her heart given back to her ; 


7 1 

and further on, pillar D, we see Anubis 
welcoming the queen in a similar fashion. 

Lastly, on the sides of pillars C and D, 
which face the Sanctuary, we have Isis and 
Hathor respectively embracing the queen. 

We now return to the entrance, and deal 
with the queen’s progress through the 
pylons or cells which occupied originally 
the whole of the right-hand side of this 
chamber. Much has perished. Twenty-one 
such pylons are given in the papyrus of 
Nu; and ten in the papyrus of Ani. This 
number was probably shown here also, but 
some of them are destroyed. These pylons 
or cells are dealt with in chapter cxlvi., Book 
of the Dead. Professor Naville says it is 
difficult to know what these sebkhets are, and 
while using Renouf’s translation ‘ pylon, 5 
he prefers to call them ‘ cells, 5 since each 
sebkhet has an occupant, a doorkeeper as 
Renouf translates the word, but as Naville 
would prefer, ‘ he who is within the door.’ 
The sebkhets belong to the House of Osiris, 
and are feminine in Egyptian, which is also 
the gender of each occupant, though some 


of them are ferocious enough looking to be 
masculine ! The queen having triumphantly 
passed through the Arits on the other side, 
with their triple monsters, now advances to 
the task of confronting the ‘ terrible ones ’ 
of her own sex, as opponents more to be 
feared, before she is admitted to the Fields 
of Bliss. But equipped as before with the 
knowledge of their ‘ names/ and how to 
utter them with ‘ power and authority,’ she 
is confident of victory. 

At the entrance she stands in white robes, 
wearing lofty plumes, and does reverence to 
her first opponent, a hawk-headed monster 
crouching within her cell and brandishing a 
huge knife. The queen’s address, after her 
name and titles, is : ‘1 have come before 
thee, O Osiris, Governor of Amentet, great 
god ; I am worthy (venerable), loving the 
place of truth, living ... in Maat (truth). 
I have not committed faults . . . the way 
of Amentet.’ 

The inscription at the First Cell is also 
very fragmentary : ‘ Cell First . . . Lady 
of tremblings, with lofty walls . . . directing 



the words which repulse [the storm] . . . 
that is coming on the way ’ is [thy] name. 
Name of the occupant is lost. 

In the Sai'te recension the answer from 
each pylon is ‘ Pass on, then, thou art pure. 

The Second Cell occupies the remaining 
space to the angle of the wall. A lioness- 
headed deity, crouching and armed as before, 
is within the cell. The inscription is in 
better preservation than the last one, and 
says : — 

‘ Cell Second (is) Lady of the sky, 
Mistress of the Two Lands, devourer 1 
of the Two Lands (sic), Lady of man- 
kind,. who discerneth all men (or, is 
great beyond every one). Name of 
guardian of its door is Meses-pehu. 
Cell Second is lady of the sky, Mistress 
of the two lands, the devourer , 1 the 
lady of mankind, who discerneth every 
one. Name of guardian of its door is 
Mes . . .’ 

The word is written nbsaa in the tomb. 


Room 6, or Hathor Room 

We must now examine Room 6, the small 
chamber to the right. The door jambs, like 
those of the chamber opposite, are conse- 
crated, south and north respectively, to the 
uraeus goddesses Nekhebt and Uazit. They 
rear themselves on the neb (lordship) sign, 
supported by dads, and hold the symbols 
of royal power and authority. The inner 
jambs are devoted to name and titles of the 

Advancing to the left we find a large Dad 
reaching to the ceiling and holding the two 
symbols of sovereignty across the breast. 
As a personality the Dad * gives joy of 
heart to the queen.’ The wall on the left is 
much destroyed. It represents the queen 
before the Divine Cow Hathor, as she was 
supposed to come out of the mountain in 
the West in primeval times towards the 
marshes, in order to suckle the infant Horus. 
Between her black horns is the red (lunar ?) 
disc, with red, black, and blue feathers alter- 
nately, and a uraeus stands out from the disc. 



She is described as ‘ Het-heru (Hat-hor, 
House of Horus), Mistress President of 
Thebes, Ruler of the Mountain of the West, 
Lady of the Sky,’ and then behind the name 
of the queen, which is placed above Hathor’s 
back, we have c Eye of Ra . . . she who is 
in his Aten ’ (disc). The presence of the 
queen’s name above the cow seems to indi- 
cate that Hathor has adopted her as her 
own. Hathor has a menat (symbol of joy 
and pleasure) round her neck, and behind 
her are the usual amulet signs of ‘protec- 
tion,’ etc. The queen, who is offering 
flowers, etc., to Hathor, is now briefly 
described as the ‘ Osiris, Lady of the Two 
Lands, N. triumphant before the great god 
of Amentet,’ and behind her are the amulet 
signs. The ceremony is described as ‘ the 
giving of all beautiful or good flowers 
(growing herbs?) to thy Ka! This is the 
only reference to a Ka in the whole tomb, 
but note that it is Hathor’s Ka that is 
meant. Hathor’s promise is unfortunately 

On the right side wall we have a counter- 


part scene in the appearance of the queen 
before Anubis. A table of offerings but no 
inscription stands between the queen and 
the god, behind whom is Isis, also enthroned. 
Her head is destroyed, but the text above 
tells us that it is ‘ Isis, great lady of the sky, 
Mistress of . . . .’ It is seldom she is thus 
associated with Anubis who is here de- 
scribed as ‘ the Governor of the Divine 
Dwelling, Great God, Lord of Shet (Hidden 
place ? ).’ 

The culminating scene of this room, as of 
the others, is on the rear wall, where we 
have the standing figure of a goddess, 
facing to the right, with both arms out- 
stretched, one in front, the other behind, 
across the whole room. The arms are 
winged. The head is destroyed, as well 
as the beginning of the inscription which 
would have told us who she is, pro- 
bably Maat or Isis, ‘ Mistress of all the 
gods.’ Two columns of inscription on the 
extreme right would also have given us 
the desired information. Remains of the 
promises of the goddess are given in front 



of her : ‘[I give] to thee all strength before 
. . . I give to thee the duration of Ra.’ Be- 
hind the figure we have new titles bestowed 
on the queen, ‘ The Osiris, great royal wife, 
lady of the two lands, Mistress of South 
and North, the lady precious, favoured, 
beloved, united to an abode in the House of 
Amen (secret house?) Mut-meryt, Nefert- 
ari, triumphant before the cycle of the gods 
. . . that is in the Sacred Land, among 
those that are with Osiris the Great God.’ 
Returning now to the Pillared Room we 
resume examination of the Cells. 

Cell Third, containing a female 
monster with crocodile head, and the 
usual knife, is ‘ Lady of altars, great in 
offerings . . . every god as he sails to 
Abydos . . . Name of her doorkeeper 
is Sebeq . . . (perhaps some form of 
Sebek, crocodile) . . . great one, sail- 
ing to Abydos.’ 

Cell Fourth has a cow-headed 
monster, similarly armed; she is ‘ mighty 
with knives . . . mistress of the two 
lands, destroyer of the enemies of Quiet 


Heart (a name of Osiris), giver of 
counsel, she who lacketh defects. 
Name of guardian of her door is Nekau 

The Fifth Cell (a boy-looking 
monster, with malformed head, and 
two knives) is ‘ Lady of increase (hau) 
of joy (rshsht) [to] him who makes 
supplication to her : none shall come 
near her, none who is on earth (?). 
(Papyrus of Ani agrees with this text, 
and also reads ‘who is on his head.’) 
Name of guardian of her doorkeeper is 
Henti-reqi (enemy of the Fiends?). 
None shall come near, etc. (as before). 

The next Cell is partly destroyed. The 
monster is snake -headed, and armed as 
before. The text given is a jumble of two ; 
the beginning is the text for the Eighth 
Cell, and the end belongs to the Sixth. As 
far as it can be given it reads : — 

‘ Cell [Sixth ? five plus x] is Blazing 
fire, flame not to be quenched, she who 
is provided with fires, far-reaching of 
hand, slayer not to be denied. None 



passes near her for fear of the hurt 
thereof. Name of the guardian [of her 
door] Khut-chetf (Protector of his body.’ 
Then follow some words from Cell 
Sixth . . . . ‘ not found . . . there is a 
serpent . . . born (plural) in presence 
of him of the Quiet Heart. Name of 
guardian . . . .’ 

The Seventh Cell is almost completely 
destroyed. Its monster has a human head, 
coloured blue ; he is armed with the usual 
knife. A word for weeping , wailing (?) 
seems to come from the Text of Cell Seventh 
(Papyrus of Ani). 

Cell Ninth seems to be entirely unrepre- 

Cell Tenth is the last here given, and is 
shown on the rear wall, right half. Its 
guardian is dog-headed, with knife in hand, 
and faces the corner of the room. The 
text is in four complete vertical columns 

‘ Cell Ten is Loud of voice, she who 
rousest (?) those who cry out (?), fearful 
in her terrors ; they (?) fear not what is 
within her. Name of guardian of her 


door, Embracer of the great one (great 


We have now arrived at the point where 
the queen, by the aid of the magical words 
on the wall beside her, has vanquished her 
enemies and all the monsters guarding the 
Arits, and passed triumphantly through all 
the portals of the House of Osiris ; and now 
she stands before the great Triad of the 
gods of the next life, a glorified being, and 
adores with uplifted hands Osiris, Hathor, 
and Anubis. The strong symbol of the re- 
constituted Osiris is before her, as being 
now her own, and she is styled, ‘ The Osiris, 
great royal wife, N. triumphant before Osiris.’ 
Osiris is the first and the last of her name : 
she is one with him. On a standard before 
the Great God are the Four Living Crea- 
tures, the Children of Horus, with blue and 
red coloured heads. Osiris, with green face 
as typical of his growth from the dead, and 
wearing the atef crown, is enthroned in 
state. His name is ‘Osiris, Chief of those 
who are in Amentet, Great God. ’ Behind 
him is Hathor, with the symbol of the West 



on her head, and left arm round Osiris and 
the right extended to his neck, while behind 
her is Anubis, with left arm similarly 
disposed round Hathor. These two deities 
are simply named. Note that the queen 
offers nothing but adoration : the time of 
offerings is past. 

Unfortunately, the Sanctuary is almost a 
total wreck. Only the merest fragments of 
figures and words can be made out ; the 
goddesses Serk and Isis, etc. Osiris would 
again be the principal figure in the centre 
of the back wall, and grouped around him 
would probably be the other deities, Hathor, 
Neith, Anubis, Maat, in whose presence 
Nefert-ari would spend her everlasting life 




The Tomb of this queen ranks next in 
interest and beauty to that of Queen Nefert- 
ari. It has been known for more than 
thirty years ; and in that period the royal 
lady for whom it was executed has fallen 
from the eminence and splendour of being 
the consort of one of the most illustrious 
of Egyptian potentates, Amenhotep hi. 
(c. 1414-1379 b . c .), and the mother of his 
still more interesting son, Amenhotep iv. 
(Khu-en-aten), the great reformer, down 
to the comparative obscurity of the wife of 
an insignificant Rameses of the xxth Dynasty 
(c. 1 200- 1 100 b . c ). For this strange 

vicissitude she has to thank the author 
of two books published in 1879 and 1882, 
who had no hesitation in affirming that this 
tomb was that of the queen of Amen- 
hotep hi. In this opinion he was followed 


by the enterprising English Editor of the 
late Brugsch Bey's Egypt under the 
Pharaohs (vol. i. pp. 490, 491), who un- 
hesitatingly accepts his predecessor as a first- 
class authority, and identifies the cartouches 
in this tomb with those of the queen on the 
Colossi at Thebes. The amount of simi- 
larity may be readily seen from almost any 
transliteration of the two names that may 
be adopted (the earlier queen, Tiy or Thyi, 
and the later Ty-ti). Beginning with the 
name of Tai, a lady whom the author 
of Nile Glea 7 iings calls a sovereign of 
Dynasty xvil, mentioned on a tomb at El 
Kab, he says that ‘ the name, in one form 
or another , remained in fashion all through 
the xvmth Dynasty,' and appeared among 
others ‘ in the name of the celebrated queen 
of Amenhotep 111. Tai-ti.’ That indeed 
might well be, but it does not follow that 
our tomb is that of Amenhotep in.'s queen, 
whose name was something like Tiy, but 
not Ty-ti (a t being lacking in the middle 
of the word). In the same book (p. 244) 
he gives a portrait of the queen of this 



tomb, whom he calls the Consort of Amen- 
hotep in., and yet (p. 243) he refers to it as 
that of the lady who is caressing Rameses 111. 
in the Temple of Medinet Habou ! The 
whole story affords one more curious instance 
of an ill-informed traveller’s assertion pass- 
ing into the domain of respectable history. 

But the erroneous identification has fallen 
into discredit. It is now known, from the 
correct reading of the name, the style of art, 
and other considerations, that it is not the 
tomb of Amenhotep iu.’s consort: further, 
that there are no tombs in the so-called 
Valley of the Queens’ Tombs earlier than 
Dynasty xix. The oldest tomb of a queen, 
which seems to be mentioned in the Abbot 
Papyrus (Breasted’s Records , iv. pp. 257, 
258), is the tomb of Isis, wife of Rameses 111. , 
situated ‘ in the great seats (tombs) of the 
king’s children, the king’s wives, and the 
king’s mothers, which are in “ the Place-of- 
Beauty.”’ The Place -of- Beauty was pro- 
bably this valley, where ‘ the king’s children, 
king’s wives, king’s mothers, the goodly 
fathers and mothers of Pharaoh, rest ? : and 


the tomb of Isis is in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of our queen’s tomb. It is quite 
of the same style, size, and plan. 

Besides, to crown the evidence, the tomb, 
though not the body, of Amenhotep in.’s 
queen Thyi', was discovered in the Valley 
of the Tombs of the Kings in the winter of 
1906-7, close to the tomb of Rameses ix. 
It was a burial of the El Amarna period, 
as Mr. Ayrton says, from the signs of Aten 
worship present ; and the name of Khu-en- 
aten’s mother, and many objects belonging 
to her were found. 

But no account of queen Ty-tis life can, 
unfortunately, be given, as nothing is known 
beyond her name and titles contained in this 
tomb. These need not be given here, as 
they will occur in the course of the following 
pages. The tomb consists of an ante- 
chamber, at the entrance, a long corridor, 
with two side-rooms, and the usual sanc- 
tuary at the back. The long vestibule may 
be taken to represent a kind of ante-chamber 
of the next world, while the inner chamber 
with its side-rooms and sanctuary, refer to 


the more remote life of the future. Like 
the scenes in Nefert-aris tomb, those of 
Queen Ty-ti’s deal entirely with the life of 
the future, and not with any form of terres- 
trial life, either material or ideal. 

We shall adopt here also the numbering 
of the rooms as given by Baedeker. No. 1 
is the ante-chamber ; No. 2 is the corridor ; 
No. 3 is the principal chamber ; No. 4 is the 
side-room on the right hand ; No. 5 is that 
on the left ; and No, 6 is the sanctuary. 

The Corridor 

Beginning, as usual, with the left-hand 
side, on entering, we have the goddess 
Maat (Truth or Law) kneeling on the sign 
for dominion, with outspread wings, to 
welcome the queen, Maat is styled ‘ Lady 
of the sky, mistress of all the gods.’ The 
first figure of the queen, wearing a vulture 
head-dress, with blue wig and pink and 
white robe, faces inward and confronts Ptah 
in adoration, who stands in his shrine with 
green face and white body. Unfortunately, 


not one of the queens heads has escaped 
mutilation, and no true portrait of her can 
be presented. Further on the queen, wear- 
ing a disc and two lofty plumes on her 
head, and holding up two sistrums, adores 
‘ Horus~on-the-horizons, Lord of the Sky,’ 
and still further on she confronts Amset, 
one of the four children of Horus, who, like 
his brethren, performs important functions 
in the funeral rites. Here the queen is 
called 4 Hereditary princess, great one of 
the favourites (or, of all favours) beloved 
palm-branch, Mistress of South and North, 
great royal wife, lady of the Two Lands,’ 
and she is also called ‘ worthy (revered) 
before Amset, the Osiris Lady of the Two 
Lands T.’ Amset is here properly man- 
headed ; and behind him stands Dua-mutf, 
jackal-headed, before whom she is also 
‘worthy.’ Associated with these two genii, 
as being closely connected with the burial 
rites, stands ‘ Isis, the great divine mother, 
lady of the sky,’ as one of the wailing sisters, 
mourning for the dead Osiris. The queen 
is now styled ‘ divine mother, divine wife, 



royal wife/ It is interesting to compare 
the titles given to her with those bestowed 
on Nefert-ari. 

Returning to the doorway, we have the 
complement in every scene of the foregoing. 
The goddess Maat, in the same attitude, is 
now styled ‘ the Eye of Ra, lady of the sky, 
mistress of all the gods, protectress of the 
Two Lands/ The queen now appears 
before Thoth, ibis-headed, as the counter- 
part of Ptah on the opposite wall. He is 
called ‘ Chief or master of the divine words/ 
He wears the yellow moon-disc, as a 
measurer of the months, with horns. She 
also appears before Toum, as she did on 
the opposite wall before Horus-on-the- 
horizons, again shaking two sistrums, and 
is styled ‘ Hereditary princess, great one 
of the favourites, palm-branch of loves/ 
Toum, always represented as human, is 
simply named ‘ Lord of the Two Lands of 
On (Heliopolis)/ The queen next appears 
before Hapi, dog-headed, and Oebh-sennuf, 
hawk-headed, the two remaining children of 
Horus, as on the opposite wall, and before 


them also she is declared ‘worthy/ To 
balance Isis on the opposite side we have 
Nephthys here, as the other wailing sister 
in the obsequies of Osiris. 

Next, at the left and right of the end of 
the corridor, as we go into the main chamber 
we have the goddesses Neith and Serket 
respectively. Neith wears here also the 
shuttle on her head, and is here called the 
‘ Lady of Sais * (her city in the Delta), lady 
of heaven, mistress of all the gods, eye of 
the Sun, without her equal.' Serket on the 
other side, with scorpion diadem, is called 
‘ Mistress (lady) of serpents (perhaps Rerek, 
the serpent fiend), mistress of the house of 
writings (the libraries of the religious or 
magical literature) lady of the sky, mistress 
of all the gods for ever and ever, every day.’ 
Neith and Serk are here, as in Nefert-ari’s 
tomb, the two goddess-guides into the 
remoter regions of the world beyond. 

We thus see that there is a perfect sym- 
metry observed on these two walls. Maat, 
at both sides of the entrance ; on left wall, 
Ptah, the Sun on the eastern horizon, followed 



by two children of Horus, then Isis, and 
lastly Neitli ; and on the right-hand wall, a 
similar sequence, Thoth and Toum (the 
sun at close of day), with the other two 
children of Horus, then Nephthys and Serk. 
It is quite possible to trace in this associa- 
tion of the four deities, Ptah, Horus-on-the- 
horizons, Thoth, and Toum, an attempt to 
combine two systems of belief, viz. the cycle 
of beliefs associated with Ra with that of 
those of the older gods Ptah and Thoth. 
Be that as it may, they are here placed 
symmetrically along with the embalming 
gods, as the special guardians of the dead. 

An inscription runs along the frieze from 
either side of the entrance, to the following 
effect (left), ‘ Given by the grace of the king 
to her whom he loved, the Osiris royal 
daughter, royal sister, great royal wife, lady 
of the two lands. Ty-ti, triumphant, before 
the great god . . . said by all these great 
gods that are of Amentet, — we grant her 
an abode in the sacred land like Osiris, lord 
of everlastingness, we grant her bread, 
cakes, a coming into the presence of the 



company of those gods that are in Akert, 
a going out of and a coming into the Lower 
World, and passing through the gates, and 
all pleasantness ... to the Osiris, great 
royal wife, etc., T. triumphant, lady of worth, 
whom he loves.’ 

The frieze inscription on the right-hand 
side differs in some respects : ‘ Given by 
the grace of the king to her whom he loves, 
the Osiris, his daughter, royal mother, great 
royal wife T. y triumphant before the great 
god, Ruler of Ament. Said by all those 
gods, we give her an abode in the Sacred 
Land, like Ra, on his horizon, abodes . . . 
may she receive bread wherever she goes 
in presence of the gods, and be established 
among the perfect ones, gifts of ... in 
Dadu, water in Abdu, the Osiris, etc., T. } 
given life for evermore.’ 

The Main Chamber 

On entering the large chamber we are 
confronted on the left hand by a white 
Anubis guardian of the inner tomb, as a 



jackal, couching on a tomb, and holding a 
sceptre, while beneath him is a white lion 
similarly posed. Anubis is described as ‘ he 
that is in the place of embalming, the chief 
of (dwelling in) the divine Hall. The lion is 
not named : he may be one of the two lions, 

‘ Yesterday ’or ‘ To-morrow,’ of Nefert-ari’s 

Further on, still on the left, we come upon 
two dog-headed apes, seated on a tomb or 
pylon, and preceded by a monkey, standing 
erect, with a long tail, and holding a bow in 
both hands. It is difficult to say what these 
creatures stand for. They are here called 
Auf, which in other places refers to the 
‘dead body’ or ‘flesh’ of Osiris (and therefore 
of the deceased) when he entered the Under- 
world, or Ra himself dead. It seems 
probable, from the absence of a figure of the 
queen, that she is identified with this ‘flesh’ 
or ‘body’ of Ra in his progress in the 
Underworld. She would then be the Great 
Auf of Ra, to whom nine apes open the gates 
in the First Division of the Duat (Under- 
world), ‘ The apes (ambenti) open the doors 



to thee/ The inscription above points in 
this direction. It says, after the titles and 
name of the queen, ‘ I (the queen) testify I 
am Maat (declared triumphant) in presence 
of the company of the gods, . . . my heart 
has been weighed in (all) my forms . . . 
there is no testimony against the Osiris, 
lady, etc., 7V Some phrases here recall the 
chapter of the weighing of the Heart of the 
Deceased in the Book of the Dead ; and as 
Thoth takes a prominent part in that 
weighing, the apes here represented may be 
taken to be his companions. 

We now come to the left hand side- 
chamber. Over the entrance the royal 
vulture is outspread, and from the centre of 
the lintel, to right and left and down the 
door posts (jambs), we have an abbreviated 
form of the inscriptions on the frieze of the 
corridor : ‘ Given by the grace of the King 
to his royal daughter of his body, whom he 
loves, etc.’ 

In the room itself there are only two walls 
preserved. The middle wall, facing the 
entrance, which ought to be the climax of 



both side-walls, is totally destroyed. At the 
entrance on the left and right we have 
again the Jackal Anubis guarding the 
abode. Then on both sides there is an 
An-mut-f priest (whom Mr. Villiers Stuart 
takes to be the queen’s son Amenhotep iv., 
Khu-en-aten!) offering incense and water to 
the deceased before she enters, once more, 
into the august presence of the embalming 
deities. The priest on the left side says : 
‘Offering of incense and water by the An- 
mut-f, the father Osiris Lord of eternity.’ 
The inscription beside the priest on the 
other side is almost identical. On the left- 
hand side the queen, with two sistrums, 
confronts Amset, Hapi, Duamutf and Qebh- 
sennuf, each with his characteristic head, as 
embalmers of the dead. There is no address 
from the queen, but behind her are the 
amulet signs : ‘ Protection, life, stability, 

power, of every kind, around her, like Ra, 
for ever and ever, in peace.’ Her name 
stands before her as being ‘ for eternity ’ ; 
and between each of the gods her name as 
an Osiris appears to show that she is theirs. 



Above the queen’s head, as a frieze, an in- 
scription runs to right, stating that she is 
4 worthy before * the embalming deities, 
while a similar one, to the left, affirms the 
same of her ‘ before all the gods of the 

On the wall opposite, the queen again 
appears adoring the same deities, but there 
is a curious difference in the picture ; the 
deities are now all human-headed. It is 
hard to say what this means, unless it 
be to mark some further stage in their 
relation to the queen, or possibly to indi- 
cate some other function of theirs than 
embalmers. She says to them ‘ The giving 
of all foods (?) as is due.’ The frieze 
inscription is almost the same as on the other 

Emerging from the mummy room and 
proceeding along the left-hand wall, we 
meet the first of the monsters of the 
Duat, or the lower world, which the queen 
must overcome : a large vulture or eagle- 
headed bird, blue with green wings ; a 
crocodile or hippo-headed beast, crouching, 




with two blue knives, and having a red disc 
on his head ; and a boy-like figure with 
misshapen head and red body, holding two 
knives, one blue, the other green. These 
three are called ‘gods of the Dual,’ and 
seem to correspond to certain monster Cell- 
keepers of the House of Osiris, which we 
have seen in Nefert-ari’s tomb. 

Beyond the last demon-guardian was a 
figure of Duamutf, now mutilated, and in 
front of him, Amset (or Mesta), to both of 
whom the queen pays homage holding two 
sistrums, as in the outer corridor. It is 
rather curious to note the frequency with 
which the four children of Horus appear 
in this tomb. The other two, Hapi and 
Oebhsennuf, are on the other side of the 
door. Above the present pair we have the 
maktet (mad, or madet) or morning boat in 
which Ra traverses the sky, which is repre- 
sented underneath. A sort of cabin, or 
sanctuary, stands amidships, where the god 
(and the deceased identified with him) sits. 
In front of the cabin is the hieroglyph shems , 
which represents the ‘ follower’ or ‘servant’ 


of Ra. Nine such servants are shown in 
the eighth hour of the Duat in the tomb of 
Sety i. From the bow hangs a kind of 
drapery, red with green fringes, similar to 
the draperies shown on the sacred barque 
of Horus-on-the-horizons in the Temple of 
Sety at Abydos. The look-out here is the 
Eye of Horus, and the boat is steered by 
the Same Eye. 

Returning now to the entrance, we have 
on the right hand a lion-headed demon 
standing, with a knife in the left hand, while 
his right hand, open, is stretched towards 
the door. He is there to oppose the passage 
of the queen, and is called ‘ Lord-of-terrors- 
with-face-of-right,’ but the queen knows his 
name, and so he says, ‘ the doors are open 
for thee, thrown open are the secret places.’ 
Behind the demon is a strange figure of the 
queen, naked, sitting on a red cushion, the 
uraeus on her brow, and a white head- 
dress, left hand on knee and right up to 
left shoulder. Farther on are two more 
guardian demons, one with a heron’s head 
holding two knives, and the other with 



head indistinguishable. No names of these 
creatures are given, but over them are the 
names and titles of the queen, with the oft- 
repeated words, ‘ given by the grace of the 
king, etc.,’ which are repeated at greater 
length on both door-posts of the entrance 
to the side-room. A vulture with outspread 
wings is over the lintel. 

As we enter the side-room we have on 
the left the queen as acting a beardless 
anmutf priest, offering incense and a liba- 
tion. That it is the queen and no other is 
proved by the words, ‘ great royal wife, lady 
of the two lands, T. triumphant/ written 
over her head. Further on we meet three 
human figures, each pointing to the car- 
touche of the queen. The first figure has a 
jackal’s head, the second a snake’s, and the 
third a crocodile’s. Their tunics are green, 
with spots and bars, and their wigs are blue. 
The words along the frieze tell us who they 
are : ‘ All the gods of the cells of the hidden 
places that are in the Duat (underworld), the 
openers of the great doors (or, the great 
doors are open),’ and they say (in the 


vertical column in front), ‘We have given 
to her the cooling water that comes from 
On (the Celestial On) (to) the Osiris T. 
triumphant/ Three only of these ‘ gods 
that are in the Duat ' are here represented. 
Behind are the four boxes containing the 
internal organs, etc., of the queen, which 
were guarded by the four embalming deities. 
Each has a human head atop, and on each 
is inscribed ‘Worthy (or revered) before 
Amset, Duamutf, etc./ respectively. 

Beginning again at the entrance we have 
the queen once more as an Anmutf priest, 
this time with a beard, offering incense and 
a libation to herself, as both inscriptions 
show. Her priest’s skin is yellow with 
brown or red spots, the belt is blue, her 
collar is green, and her body is brown. She 
wears the uraeus as before. 

Behind the queen we have three more 
gods of the Duat, as on the opposite wall. 
The first is crocodile-headed, the second 
heron-headed, and the third hawk-headed 
(male figure, naked). Between them are 
the cartouches of the queen, as on the 

ROOM 4 103 

other side. The two vertical columns of 
inscription read : 4 Utterance of all the great 
company of the gods of the Duat, Lord of 
terrors, great god . . . say they, we have 
given to her peace (?) in the Sekhet-aanru 
(Fields where the ploughing and the sow- 
ing, etc., were done in the next world, and 
where the grain is three cubits high, etc.), 
cool water to drink in the Sekhet-hetep (the 
Fields of Peace).’ 

Further on and facing towards the end 
wall, so as to form the retinue of the queen 
who stands there opposite Hathor’s tree, are 
two deities, both kneeling and adoring, one 
with a jackal’s head and the other with a 
hawk’s or falcon’s head. They are kneeling 
on a large perch or standard, and hold the 
right hand to the breast, and represent 
Anubis and Horus, with whom are re- 
spectively associated certain spirits, called 
the souls of (the city of) Pe, and of (the 
city of) Nekhen. These are the celestial 
counterparts of the cities of Buto and El 
Kab respectively, or, shortly, North and 
South. These spirits or souls are usually 


grouped in threes and represented as 
servants of the Sun, hailing his rising and 
setting with acclamations. It was essential 
for the deceased to know them, as chapters 
cxii. and cxiii. of the Book of the Dead 
inform us. Here they adore the queen, as 
it is said in a hymn to Ra, ‘ The souls of 
the cities of Pe and Nekhen exalt thee ’ ; this 
is said especially when Ra (or the deceased) 
reaches the divine barque. Their words in 
this tomb are difficult to interpret : ‘ Utter- 
ance of the Souls of Pe, and of Nekhen ; we 
send forth shouts of joy ; cool (or pure) be 
thy name like those of the gods that are 
in Duat.’ 

Now we come to the culminating scene, 
on the wall opposite the door. The queen, 
attired in a white robe, edged with blue, 
with a green wig, vulture head-dress and 
uraeus, stands before the sacred sycamore, 
and catches the water in her hands that 
flows in two refreshing streams from the 
jars that Hathor, as a woman, pours out 
from within the tree. The goddesses Nut 
and Isis are also associated in this way with 



the sycamore (nehet) tree. In chapter 
clxxxix., Book of the Dead, ‘the beautiful 
sycamore * is said to stand in the pool of 
Akeb. Behind the tree is the goddess 
Hathor, as the divine cow issuing from the 
Gap (chapter clxix.) in the mountain of the 
west. She is of a tawny colour, and has a 
white disc between her horns, with a red 
cloth thrown over her back and a menat 
hanging behind her neck. The inscriptions 
give the titles and name of the queen, and 
Hathor, ruler of Amentet, says that she ‘ is 
giving cool water of Nile the great one 
(i.e. the celestial Nile), that is Truth.’ In 
Sen-nofer’s tomb Isis occupies the place of 
Hathor in the tree, and there is food as well 
as drink there : and here the queen was 
strengthened with celestial bread and water 
for her journey towards perfect bliss. 

And thus fortified she emerges to con- 
front, outside this chamber, more of the 
terrible warders of the gates or cells. 
There are two of them, those of the second 
and third sebkhets or cells of the House of 
Osiris, each holding two knives. The figures 


are much destroyed, and their names are 
lost. But, like the rest, they are overcome 
by the queen’s knowing their names, and 
she mounts into the Bark of the Sun on 
her celestial way. As on the other side 
she was supported by two of the children 
of Homs, so here the other two, Hapi and 
Oebhsennuf, play the same part, and she 
adores them, holding up the emblems of 
South and North before them ere she 
enters the innermost chamber, where her 
complete union and identification with 
Osiris, the Lord of all living ones, is 

The Sanctuary 

The sanctuary, or holy of holies, is 
crammed full of mythology and divinities. 
The main idea underlying all is, however, 
the reunion of the deceased with Osiris. It 
is noteworthy that though the name and 
titles of the queen appear in many places, 
she herself is only seen at the doors on 
entering. We have ‘gods many and lords 


many.' The funerary deities, Amset, Hapi, 
Duamutf, and Qebhsennuf, appear again 
twice over, confronting the queen, who is 
severally identified with them. Then we 
have Seb, Nut, Nefer-toum, Horhekennu 
on the one side, with Hu, Sa, Shu, and 
Tefnut on the other; while in the centre 
scene, on one side, we have Thoth, 
Nephthys, and Isis, and on the other, 
Serket and Neith, with the great Osiris 
in the midst. Beginning at the entrance 
on the left, we have the queen, adoring 
with uplifted hands ; and she is now de- 
clared to be ‘ in all peace, stability, power,’ 
and to be ‘ worthy before the company of 
all the gods of the Duat.’ Four of these 
gods occupy the lower register or row of 
the left-hand wall, while other four hold the 
same position on the opposite side — eight 
gods in all ; but a ‘ company of gods ’ is 
usually nine. Who is the ninth ? Possibly 
the queen herself ; and here she is admitted 
as a member of the august company. This 
seems probable from the fact that all the 
figures of the deities, both above and below, 


on both sides, are kneeling to the queen as 
to a divinity like themselves. The top 
register shows us once more the four 
children of Horus, Amset (white body), 
Hapi (red body), Duamutf (white body), 
and Qebhsennuf (red) — all as human beings, 
— and after each one’s name comes the 
name of the queen, as being acknowledged 
by each in turn. Before each is a table of 
offerings for the divine sustenance of the 
queen ; — her Ka is never mentioned, nor 
is there a single formula for funeral offer- 
ings to be found in the tomb. The first 
god of the Duat in the lower row, left- 
hand wall, is ‘ Seb or Seba, hereditary 
prince’ [of the gods] who kneels before 
the queen. Her name comes after his, as 
being united with him in the company of 
the gods; next we have the goddess Nut, 
who is called the ‘ great Mother of the 
gods,’ and she likewise is joined with the 
queen ; next comes Nefer-toum, and behind 
him is Hor-hekennu ( i.e . Horus the Praiser), 
both, like the rest, identified with the queen’s 



Then, on the opposite wall, beginning at 
the door, we have the counterpart and com- 
pletion of the preceding scene. The queen 
advances into the chamber, adoring as on 
the other side, and the four children of 
Horus, coloured as before, receive her, 
seated, with tables of offerings and jars 
before them, while the four gods below 
kneel, like the other members of the ‘ com- 
pany of the gods,’ on the other side. The 
queen says she comes as an 4 Osiris before 
all those that are Maat in the Ament,’ and 
that ‘ behind her there is protection like Ra 
for evermore.’ The first of the kneeling 
gods is Hu, and he grants her ‘ peace every 
day/ The next is Sa, or Sau, a god of 
knowledge, and he grants the queen ‘ cooling 
water that comes from On.’ Hu and Sa 
are often associated in the Judgment scene, 
as assessors of Maat or Truth ; and Hu is 
also a kind of celestial food. Shu, the god, 
comes next, ‘ Son of Ra, who grants the 
queen wine and milk ’ ; and last of all is the 
goddess Tefnut, who ‘grants incense, cakes, 
beer to the Osiris, lady of the Two Lands, 


Ty-ti, triumphant.’ Shu and Tefnut were 
children of Ra, born together ; Shu it was, 
as a cosmic deity, who separated Nut, the 
sky, and uplifted her from Seb, the earth. 
The ennead or company of the Nine (?) as 
here given, is not easily understood, as it is 
different from any with which we are ac- 

The final scene occupies the rear wall. 
The action is from right to left, and consists 
in the presentation of the queen by the 
goddesses Neith and Serket to the great 
god Osiris, who nowhere else appears in the 
tomb. The queen is not present in person 
but in name, which stands between the two 
who conduct the perfected and triumphant 
one to the Lord of all living creatures. 
Neith, wearing the crown of the North, is 
simply called the ‘ Great Divine Mother,’ 
and Serket, with a scorpion on her head, is 
‘ Mistress of Serpents, Keeper of the house 
of the Writings.’ Osiris is enthroned, and 
bears the symbols of sovereignty, as ‘ Ruler 
of the Two Lands . . .’ Isis, 'the Great 
Divine Mother/ and Nephthys, stand closely 


together and support Osiris; while Thoth, 
ibis-headed, stands behind all, as the Divine 
Scribe and Master of the Word, with a 
scroll in his left hand, and holding up his 
right towards Osiris, as conveying some 
potent influence of life. He is called ‘ Thoth, 
lord of divine [words] great god, dwelling 
in Hesert, he who maketh powers of pro- 
tections (magical charms) for Father Osiris, 
Lord of Ament/ and presents the Osiris T. 

And now, partaking of the celestial food 
here provided, not by mortals, but by the 
gods themselves, and protected by their 
secret powers, the deified and immortal 
queen, though unknown to men, abides in 
fellowship with Father Osiris for ever and 

Printed by T. and A. Constable, Printers to His Majesty 
at the Edinburgh University Press 





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